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Presents THEORIES OF DEVELOPEMENT © by Magna Systems MCMXCVII Copyright and all rights including Television are reserved
THE DEVELOPING CHILD This video cassette series provides the setting for the understanding of the unfolding process of human development from the beginning of life through adolescence. This specially designed Student Workbook is published by Magna Systems. Videos and Workbook distributed by Magna Systems
NARRATOR Look at this early childhood program. What do see? Children playing, having fun, children learning as they play.
NARRATOR You can see a lot.
NARRATOR But one part of this program is invisible, the theory behind it.
NARRATOR All programs have theories whether formal or informal. Professionals who run programs have theories and so do parents. In fact, everybody has theories about children. How they develop and what they need. Listen to McCany , she is critical of the theory that does not match hers.
McCany It's… it's a real different mentality there and also to be humble you know, I noticed my this woman who has a baby his age, she would put him down in front of my son just, I think to make me feel comfortable like because my son was walking and his… her son was walking really well which didn't bother me a bit, but she thought oh, no… no… no you know she must be really Asian(ph) and she said no my son is rather stupid in this area, I was thinking, my god she is saying that in front of her son.
McCany You know.
Just like you wouldn't be…
McCany Right and I you know being kind of based on this environment since i was fifteen, so I'm more used to praising my son in front of strangers like oh! Isn't he beautiful? If somebody said, "your son is so cute," I will say thank you, I think he is too. But in orient and my husband's culture too you know, you go… oh no… no my son is kind of silly you know, he has got funny nose and that's kind of being humble and it… how is that like in…
No I… I don't think.
NARRATOR Parents like to talk about their theories. They can checkout whether or not their theories match or learn about those of recognized theorists. Who are these recognized theorists? This video will give you a sample of the major ones. It will also give you an overview of theory in action. Showing how theoretical frameworks affect the way we see children and deal with them. When trying to sort out the theories it helps to think of the whole child. Each theory focuses on a slightly different aspect the child is made up of mind, feelings, body and the child operates in a social context. Theorists who focus on the mind are called cognitive theorists. Jean Piaget is a name that stands out from the others. Piaget was most interested in how children think.
Tell me… which one is the strongest.
This one, it is powerful, just press. Do you know what's the name is? Gordon.
NARRATOR Piaget would have regarded this conversation as a peak into how this child's mind is developing rationality.
NARRATOR Piaget describes stages of cognitive development. Stages that occur in succession always in the same order from the reflexive movements of very young infants to the trial and error approach of young children. To the thought out reasoning of the early adolescent.
Back in the 20s we are like 1800 , like 1800 . People, men were treating women on the family. And I think now they women should be treated equal to men.
NARRATOR Let's look at each of those stages of little closer. Edward's movements are random. Does this really have something to do with his intellectual development? Piaget says yes. Piaget would tell you that Edward is in the beginning of the sensory motor stage of cognition. Piaget's research indicates that with time and through interaction with people and the environment. The child grows in ability to understand the world and how it works.
I'm going to talk on phone. I want hello hi daddy.
NARRATOR A lot of progress is made through a trial and error approach.
NARRATOR But eventually children can began to explain things without trying them on each time.
Can you go back to school.
Oh no I can't, because the backwards pedal is the break.
I know one job really they could do and probably would always be considered this housewife.
NARRATOR Piaget's final stage of cognitive development, occurs when adolescence can use logic to talk about ideas and propositions.
He liked his wife go and work for the first time when the baby is little and then when they got older they both worked and they got a babysitter, I don't think there is any job that one has to do.
NARRATOR Piaget was what was called as stage theorist. He believed in the literal meaning of the term development, that is the stages unfold through maturation. He described development occurring in distinct steps that always fall in the same order. Piaget would tell you that this alphabet quilt is way beyond this baby. He is not ready to match letters and sounds. He is still in the very preliminary stages of symbolic development.
NARRATOR These children are dealing with symbolism at a more concrete level. One finger stands for one muffing. They are gaining number concepts.
NARRATOR Look Kien is matching her fingers up to Denis's . She is making what Piaget called one to one correspondence an important step in understanding numbers.
How many got left?
NARRATOR The written number or numeral comes later. Piaget believed less in teaching than putting children in a rich environment and letting them explore it.
NARRATOR He did not stress write answers. Piaget would have questioned that this child needs the teachers praise. Children can get hooked on praise then they could explore in and put their energy into pleasing adults. Exploration is an important part of Piaget's theory. Thanks to Piaget and others young children are viewed as active learners those who follow Piaget's theory are adamant that children be allow just to diddle around like this boy is doing. This is more important than sitting and listening to a teacher.
Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson
NARRATOR Piaget saw this kind of behavior as mind related. The boy is exploring the doll in a sensory motor way. By using his imagination, he is beginning to create images in his mind, an early step of symbolic development. Other theorists would see this behavior as more related to feelings than mind. Feelings are the major focus of people who follow the psychoanalytic theory of development. The big names here are Sigmund Freud and his student Erik Erikson . Freud and Erikson would have made much of this scene concerned as they were with what's hidden deep in the psyche and in the inner recesses of the heart.
NARRATOR Watch these children. They are working out emotional issues were pretend play and a very good psychoanalytic fashion. They have been to the doctor before they are replying their fears and anxieties perhaps.
NARRATOR Piaget would have looked at the same scene and said it shows evidence that the children are developing symbolic representation.
Cognitive Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson
NARRATOR They use a piece of plastic for a blood pressure cuff showing that they can make one object stand for another. Cognitive theory and psychoanalytic theory. Two different ways of looking at the same behavior. Like Piaget , Freud and Erikson , were stage theorists, that is, they believe that the psyche unfolds in successive stages. Watch Denis's mouth, it's constantly busy. Denis's is in Freud's oral stage.
NARRATOR So are these babies ah… oral satisfaction, it's not just the food in the stomach, but the feelings in the mouth. Oral satisfaction is important during the first year according to Freud , the father of psychology. If you are Freudian, you worry that if a baby is unable to satisfy his oral needs, he will grew up to be a chain smoker or worse. Erikson looks at Freud's oral stage, as the time babies develop a sense of basic trust. They come to see the world as a place where they get their needs met when someone consistently heeds their cries and feeds them.
NARRATOR They see the world as cold and cruel when no body seems to care. It isn't just what's done to them, but also how it's done. Babies who never get loving treatment learn mistrust. After Freud's oral stage comes his anal stage.
NARRATOR Toilet training is the highlight of the stage and must be handled sensitively says Freud .
NARRATOR Erikson's corresponding stage is what he called the stage of autonomy. Children are allowed to say no and protest because the adults in their lives believe in Erikson whether they know his name or not.
What's the matter?. What's the matter baby? Well Kevin is going to take a bath too.
NARRATOR It's just a stage. Harried adult say to reassure themselves.
NARRATOR We've looked at theories focusing on mind and feelings. Body is the focus of Arnold Gesell , another stage theorist, who was most meticulous in describing the milestones of physical development. Physical development unfolds, it can't be taught says Gesell the maturation analyst.
NARRATOR Mother doesn't need to clap for him, he doesn't require her praise, wrong says another theorist B.F. Skinner . Skinner focused on the body like Gesell , but unlike Gesell , he was not a maturation analyst. Skinner was a behaviorist. He didn't believe in development unfolding in ages and stages. He believed that all behavior is learned. Learned through the consequences of our own actions.
NARRATOR We repeat behavior when we receive reinforcement for it. We avoid behavior when there is no reinforcement.
Very good Corie , very good.
NARRATOR When adults use rewards even just simple ones as praise. They show they are influenced by behavioristic principles.
Very good goal, good job, very good job.
Yeah, proud of you. Good job.
NARRATOR But behaviorism is a science and Skinner would tell you that few parents are even teachers truly understand it, are use it effectively.
NARRATOR Watch this once more.
What did they go? Oh… William . I don't think that's okay to hurt.
NARRATOR The teacher was doing it all wrong according to behaviorists. By paying attention to this behavior she is only reinforcing it. Better to pay attention to the behavior you want and it nor behavior you don't want. Social learning theory takes behaviorism a step further by adding modeling or imitation to the explanations of why children behave the way they do.
Lev Vygotsky Erik Erikson
NARRATOR Why do you think the little boy snatched the pizza from the little bride? Is he the husband? Does he figure she made it for him? Where did he get the idea that brides cook for their husbands? Are they both imitating somebody? Somebody on TV. I love Lucy may be. You can tell a little boy not to be aggressive and a little girl, that she does not have to grow up and get married, but they are both more opt to copy the models around them then pay attention towards. Do as I say, not as I do doesn't work. No matter how often you say it. Especially when it comes to spanking because children imitate their parents . Spanking can cause more problems than it solves. Hitting children who hit causes them to hit more not less, according to social learning theory. Mind, body and feelings we have covered them all. Children are not just walking bundles of feelings housed in a body that's got it by a mind. They are born into and grow up in a social context. Erikson though he focused on feelings in psychoanalytic tradition also believed in the effect of culture on development. There is another theorist Lev Vygotsky , who believed in cultural context. His social cultural theory has coming to its own in the last few years. Vygotsky believed in the influence of culture like Erikson , but he also focused on how the mind works. Like Piaget , Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge. They don't just take it in. Vygotsky believed in the power of language.
Well one it sounds like a pooh… pooh. like an express engine coming. One day I watch a machine something like express engine coming.
And what else you hear what' the other one sounds like that?
Well which one.
Do you hear any other sounds in the engine?
Did they have horns or something like that? Tell me about those.
What they have horns.
Whistle or something?
Whistles, that's what I knew. Every engine has Whistles. And you know what specially every… every engine have names.
What names did they have.
Well, I have not heard them yet.
NARRATOR Vygotsky thought that social interaction is a vital ingredient in learning and development. He didn't pretends off, watch this teacher try hard to lead the child alone to do it himself.
NARRATOR Even though he can't resist helping just a little. You can tell that he was trying not to. You can tell that he is not a Vygotsky scholar or he would not be so hesitant to do what's called scaffolding, that is providing support and assistance. According to Vygotsky , assisted performance is fine even desired.
NARRATOR According to Piaget , children should be left alone to explore the material world and discover what they can do in it without the help of adults, to different ideas about development. Watch this little boy learn to make tortillas with the help of his teacher in good Vygotsky fashion.
NARRATOR The boy tries and fails. His tortilla crumbles. The teacher actively intervenes showing him how to do it. He watches his teacher demonstrate.
NARRATOR Now he is ready to do it.
NARRATOR Success. Now he wants to count the tortillas, one is hiding under the other. Again a teacher helps him so that he can be successful. His assisted performance is superior to what his independent one would be. Nonsense Piaget would say, too much stress on getting it right, when he obviously is not quite ready. Why wait when you can help a little Vygotsky would argue. Theories, there are all kinds of theories. Watch these child developmental professionals discuss today's trends.
Most of us have learned, yes it is kind of hands off don't model, don't do this now with the… we are learning more about the Reggio approach and Vygotsky and the teaching moment, its… they are saying more that may be there should be more intervention at appropriate moments in that… in the whole. If you has to be towards training professionals as toward is their appropriate moment intervene. I mean I have to rethink my whole point of view about modeling for children. How much hands off should there be? How much intervention should there be and I think I hope profession is right now in a… in a state of asking ourselves these questions and you know perhaps that there ought to be someway to acknowledge that in this video.
I think it would also be truthfully acknowledged as much as I do acknowledge great deal of Vygotsky . I also want to acknowledge parents I have been saying this for a long time and because they are not professionals and not researchers we have attended to their voices.
NARRATOR Everybody, parents, researchers, the person on the street all have ideas about how to deal with children. How they grow and learn. How they develop. Sometimes one theory contradicts another. Whose theories are right? Whose theories are wrong you cannot think of right and wrong when it comes to theories of child development. Even though, there may be an conflict with one another, each have something to contribute to our understanding of children.
THE END magna systems, inc. Program Producers SHANTA and MILAN HERZOG Design and Script XXXXX XXXXX-MENA Script Consultants INTISAR SHAREEF ARLEEN PRAIRIE Editor SUSAN TENKINS Music by WENDELL YUPONCE RAY BARRETT LOU and RIC WILSON Post Production BLUE WATER POST Sound SOUND VENDORS With special thanks to: XXXXX XXXXX for the six Principles of Development Children's Center, Napa Community College Pacific Oaks College and Schools Children's Care Program, Compton Community College MAGDA GERBER and Resources for Infant Educarers Sy Wexler , E.C. Brown & Churchill Media for stock footage and All the children and their parents THE DEVELOPING CHILD magna systems, inc. M This program was captioned by the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology through an agreement with the U.S. Department of Education. Further reproduction without permission of the copyright holder is prohibited, unless it is in a specialized format. Magna Systems, Inc. 1997