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Unfortunately not- while the VIN will give you information applicable to the build, the closest it will get you is the type of engine in the vehicle- not the specific engine number.
You may be able to read it easier if you do something to differentiate the low and high areas- scuffing it with some sandpaper and then blowing it off will make the stamped numbers dark against a slightly lighter background. You shouldn't need to take the rust off completely, but if it is necessary you just need to get the surrounding material clean, leaving the numbers dark. You could also try soaking it with some WD40 or similar rust penetrant spray to darken it, but only if the scuff sanding does not work (as you won't be able to sand it easily after spraying it)