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You can find the explanations in the instructions to California Schedule CA for non residents. I've attached it to the thread.
What you are referring to as differences between California and federal law are areas where California is said to not conform to the tax code. There are other areas where there are some items that not quite "non-conforming," they are just not allowed as deductions because of their nature. This includes most state payments. For example, you cannot deduct state income tax from your state tax return. Conversely, California does not tax social security income but the federal government will if you exceed certain income levels. In any event, here is the actual form you'd use for these adjustments: https://www.ftb.ca.gov/forms/2019/2019-540nr-ca.pdf
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There are two separate instructions. One for residents, one for non-residents. Here is the one for residents:
Your itemized deductions are really only affected in the tax section. State taxes are not deducted on your state tax return. And in your charitable contributions. If you are the type of person that donates a lot, California limits your deductible contributions to 50% of your adjusted gross income, while the federal limit is 60%.
Why are you looking at the non-resident return? Where do you reside?
Don't worry about time.
Although I don't know how I can help you from this point. Music deductions? If it's a business expense it will appear on your federal return and be copied on your CA return.
There are some miscellaneous deductions that will be added to your California itemized deductions, as unreimbursed employee business expenses are no longer allowed as deductions on your federal return but they are on your state return.