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Tax ID number or EIN is an identification number, just like social security number but for your business. Applying for tax ID/EIN will not change anything about your business structure or how you run it. And if you are sole proprietor or single member LLC you will still be using your social security number for all tax related filing.
No. Tax ID will not change your filing requirements.
State issue their own state ID number for sales tax purposes. Filing requirements are determined by type of business, activity, place of business and level of income, not if you have or don't have tax ID.
In some states you are required to file even if you do not make any sales subjects to sales tax. For instance in GA you have to register your business and fill monthly sale tax return reporting all your taxable and nontaxable sales. Even if you do no sale anything you still need to file "zero" return.