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You cannot collect somebody else's benefits. You can collect your own benefits based on somebody else's records, like your spouse's or ex but not his own benefits.
After your spouse dies, you will be eligible for survivor/widow benefits (your own benefits based on your spouse's records) as well as your own benefits but you can collect only one benefits at the time. You will be eligible or both but you will have to choose between you own or survivor/widow benefits. You cannot have both.
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Because the inflation rate didn't increase, consumer prices actually went down according to statistics, the social security didn't do the cost of living adjustment for 2016.
The COLA adjustment would be for everybody so your daughter would also get an increase. Social security benefits are based on work history (earnings) but also how soon you applied for the benefits. Everybody has his/her benefits calculated individually.