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Assuming you didn't create any LLC or corporation, you can claim the expenses on Schedule C with your 1040. How and when to deduct those expenses depends on timing. You don't necessary have to have sales/income to deduct expenses as long as your business is up and running, meaning you are offering your services to the public and advertising it as such. Once you determine a starting date, you will divide the expenses between before and after the starting date. All expenses before you opened your business are start up expenses. You can deduct up to 5K of those expenses on your first year return, the rest will be amortized over the next 5 years. Expenses you had after you opened your business are currently deductible, except capital expenses. Capital expenses like furniture, fixture and equipment that is expected to last for more than 1 year have to be depreciated unless you use section 179.
If you don't know much about tax preparation I would suggest to hire a tax professional to help you with the first year filing to maximizing your deductions. Deducting what you can in the first year is sometimes not the best strategy, especially if your income is very low. You may want to leave some depreciation deductions for the future years to offset future income.
If the phone is 100% for business and you have another phone/vehicle for personal use than yes, you can deduct the 100% expenses. The same would apply to internet.
Deduction is not a credit. Deduction will reduce you taxable income so the actual benefit depends on your tax bracket. $1000 deduction in 15% tax bracket will result in $150 refund. In 25% tax bracket it will be $250.
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