It seems to me that, even if you were not a "US person" in 2013, the income you earned while in the US should be subject to US taxes unless covered by a treaty, and subject to some other country's taxes (probably Canada). In some cases, you would be subject to tax in both countries, with only the foreign tax credit (that is what it is called in the US, but Canadian law is similar) to reduce double-taxation.
However, if you were not a Canadian resident after 6-Oct-2013, you must have been a US resident. The <183 days rule assumes no change of status during the year.
I'm afraid I could not give a "firm opinion" as to your residency without knowing a lot more information than you've given; but you must be resident somewhere.
Your nationality and that of your company might also be of importance, as well as in which countries your company has "permanent facilities".
However, with the information you've provided, even if, for 2013, you were not considered a resident of the US, your $19411 salary would be taxable in the US on form 1040-NR as US-sourced income.
There is no way to prevent the CRA from coming after you, but if you were to pay US taxes for 2013, it would show go faith. It's possible to formally request a ruling as to your residency, but even that is not definitive if they believe you omitted a significant point.