It sounds like you are considered a disregarded entity/Sole Proprietor, which is how you filed your business on your Form 1040 form, and that was correct for your Federal tax return.
CA DOES require the Form 568 . In the notice you received from CA, does it state if you sent the $800 minimum annual fee.
If yes, it would be advisable to attach the Form 568 with the rest of your return and send it to the CA Franchise Tax form. Neither myself and my colleague in CA, have ever seen them charge more than the $800 annual fee.
If you have not paid the $800, you are considered late, and you will be charged interest and penalties. It would be advisable to call the state and get an updated balance of what you owe.
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