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Here is the list of federal taxes:
Subtitle A—Income Taxes Subtitle B—Estate and Gift Taxes Subtitle C—Employment Taxes Subtitle D—Miscellaneous Excise Taxes Subtitle E—Alcohol, Tobacco, and Certain Other Excise Taxes source - http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode26/usc_sup_01_26.html
If you are looking for additional details about taxation policy - please consider this publication - http://www.taxfoundation.org/pdfs/whytaxesmatter.pdf
and this very nice resource - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxation_in_the_United_States - scroll down to see a list of taxes (imposed by federal, state or local laws).