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1. Here is a link to a very good Floor Truss span table sheet: As you can see, if you go with a Live Load of 60 psf and a Dead Load of 15 psf, a 14" deep floor truss spaced at 16" o.c. will only span 19.75'. If you use the IRC Code required Live Load of 40 psf and Dead Load of 15 psf, a 14" deep floor truss spaced at 16" o.c. will span 22.58'.
2. You can have a local truss manufacturer design a truss system that will have an opening in the middle for storage or occupancy along with a roof snow load. The bottom chords do not need to be trusses, see attachment below:
I am working on question #3 and #4 right now
3. If you are planning on using ICF construction for your basement and 1st story walls, you will need to get with your local ICF product supplier and they should be able to size the wall properly for their specific system. They will most likely have an approved ICC Evaluation Report for their product.
4. In my opinion, a 20' high wall form being poured all at once will not work. You are correct about the possibility of blowout and of lateral instability until the concrete cures. Again, once you choose a supplier for the ICF system you will be using, they will have technical staff that will help you with these type of details.
I hope this helps.
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Roof trusses can be designed to clear span 32'.
Good Luck with your project planning!