Kathy, The following question is the one I mentioned on a last…
Kathy, The following question is...
Kathy, The following question is the one I mentioned on a last question. It is due tomorrow afternoon (Sat 9-15-12). This question contains 2 different sessions: Session 1 is due Saturday and session 2 is due Mon morning AM.
1. What should teachers know about IQ tests and the assessment of intellectual functioning?
2. How are the characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities relevant to planning and delivering effective instruction in the special education class and general education class?
3. What factors might account for the wide differences in the prevalence of intellectual disabilities within the school-age population across states and school districts?
1. Why has the concept of learning disabilities proven so difficult to define and what characteristic encompasses all students with learning disabilities?
2. Are the achievement deficits of most students diagnosed with learning disabilities the result of neurological impairment or poor instruction?
3. What skills are most important to the success of an elementary-age student with learning disabilities in the general education classroom? for a secondary student?
1. Whose disability is more severe: the acting-out, antisocial child or the withdrawn child? Why?
2. What are the most important skills for teachers of students with emotional or behavioral disorders? Why?
3. Why might the inclusion of children with emotional or behavioral disorders in general education classrooms be more (or less) intensely debated than the inclusion of children with other disabilities?
Webster’s dictionary defines synthesis as: “The combining of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole ”. Throughout the journals in this course you will have the opportunity to synthesize each chapter, or, as Webster would say, combine elements of the chapter you think were especially poignant to form a short paragraph that captures it as a whole. Your synthesis of Chapter Four should be between 200-300 words, be written in only your words (i.e., no quotes, paraphrase, etc.), and capture the essence (essential points) of the chapter concepts.
Chapter summary and key words are as follows:
The intricacies of receiving and acting upon feedback are complex and varied. The decision points in assessment planning rely on continual monitoring and responding with students to ensure they are actively engaged as assessors in their learning. Assessment proficiency is determined by the teacher's ability to observe, record, respond to, and analyze assessments in a manner that improves student learning. Providing descriptive feedback in responding to student learning has a tremendous effect on student learning.
Determining the purpose of assessments and aligning those decisions to clearly defined instructional objectives are crucial and continual processes for the responsive teacher. The information received from those assessments must come from multiple and varied types of assessment activities, based upon formative (for learning), benchmark (during learning), and summative (after learning) assessments in both formal and informal experiences with the student.
Lastly, understanding the value and appropriate use of information received in the various types of feedback, from classroom interactions to studying standardized and other formal, ongoing assessments, will determine the effective use of that feedback. The analysis of feedback requires a neutral and objective disposition toward the assessment and the students.
Key Terms to Remember
accountability: The auditing of the educational system to determine if the students are meeting state standards or meeting other preset learning objectives.
analytic rubric: A set of defined scoring guides which differentiates specific elements within the overall objective being learned, usually comprised of a set of separate descriptions associated with separate scores.
assessment for learning, or formative assessments: Various types of assessments, often informally administered and informally recorded, used to adapt the instruction and content for the needs of the learner usually with or by the student.
assessment plan: An organized collection of information derived to develop a deep understanding of what students understand and can do in relation to specific learning outcomes organized within set timeframes.
authentic assessments, or performance tasks: Assessments that mimic activities found in the real world, which demonstrate meaningful application of skills, knowledge, and attitudes being taught.
backward design: Determining and prioritizing the essential elements of the set of learning objectives to plan, from last to first, the specific interim learning objectives, activities, and assessments that lead to attainment of the determined essential elements.
benchmark assessments: Assessments of learning at the end of a specific period of time, usually used to monitor interim progress of learning.
causality: The relationship between how one thing caused another thing to happen. In education, usually describes the attempt to determine the actions that resulted in student performance increases or decreases.
constructive feedback: Assessments that are either descriptive or evaluative but clearly aligned to the learner's specific development of knowledge, skills, or performance aligned to the objectives.
descriptive feedback: Assessment that involves the learner being provided with clear descriptions which provide opportunities to make adjustments and improvements toward his or her understanding and performance.
diagnostic assessments, or preassessments: Assessments that occur in front of the learning and are intended to uncover strengths and areas for instructional intervention.
educational assessment: The process of gathering, measuring, and reporting knowledge skills and attitudes of individuals, student groups, or broad organizations such as a school district.
evaluative feedback: Feedback to the learner that involves inferring a judgment about a student's knowledge, skills, or performance when measured against specific criteria, usually associated with a grade or scoring mark.
holistic rubric: A scoring guide which describes an overall broad understanding or application of the learning objective, usually comprised of one set scoring guide.
leading indicator: The use of the assessment results from one assessment to predict results on a later assessment. Usually used in benchmark assessments that statistically correlate to performance on the state test or other higher stakes test.
learning goals: Sets of defined expectations, standards, or student-developed statements clearly stating an aim to acquire new knowledge and skills.
multiple measures: Using more than one assessment or set of feedback to make decisions on student learning.
transfer of learning: Ensuring that the student will be able to apply learning not only within the current lesson, or at the end of the unit, but to new situations in different subject areas at a later time.
standardized test: A test administered and scored in a consistent manner that is designed to provide an accurate measure of a person's mastery or skill in a specific area.s
summative assessments, or assessments of learning: Evaluative assessments to determine the learning that has taken place during a given period of time, usually at the end of the learning cycle.
validity: The assessment is measuring the concept, knowledge, or performance the assessment is intended to measure.
whole to part to whole learning model: A curriculum design which states that learning is organized by establishing a context for instruction and skills, teaching specific skills relative to that context, and applying learned skills within the originating context.
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