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In Illinois, this is guided by 765 ILCS 705 to 715. Within 45 days of the moveout the landlord has to send the full deposit if there are no deductions. OR, if there are deductions, then a written accounting and partial refund (if any) must be sent in 30 days of the moveout.
The deposit may only be held for non payment of rent, and/or, damage to the property beyond normal wear and tear.
If the ex-tenant believes that the landlord's deduction is improper, exaggerated, or should be voided if late (later than 30/45 days), then it is up to the ex-tenant to file in small claims court to get the money back.
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