I am sorry that you were treated this way.
You should have more transparency regarding what is going on with your Association (HOA records are open to all owners - so you can review meeting minutes, budgets, election results, etc.).
You should also have the right to raise issues during meetings.
While there is no format for a meeting, you are correct, annual meetings should review the business of the HOA (such as budget, construction/maintenance issues, etc.) and not simply act as a meet and greet.
You do not identify the state that your HOA is located in, but each state has its own individual statutory code which governs HOA (or "Common Interest Developments") law and this is where you would look to see the specifics for what is required in each year's annual disclosures, and what must be included in meetings (some states do have specific items that must be included, most do not).
Often, the most effective way to deal with ineffective leadership is to run for the board yourself, or find a more suitable candidate (if you don't want to run, but you have a neighbor that would make a good board member, talk to them about running in the next election).
Finally, if they are violating your state's HOA laws, or your own HOA's governing documents (this is the biggest source substantive claims for homeowners), you can sue the HOA in civil court - if you choose this route, I would recommend hiring an attorney to represent you.
Short of filing a lawsuit, you can try to mediate the dispute with them - contact your local bar association and request referrals to mediators, a third party neutral can often help you reach a mutually agreeable resolution. Use the bar association's referrals to contact a mediator or two, the mediator will then contact the other party to set up a mediation session, and you can go from there - hopefully resulting in a formal or written settlement agreement, and save yourself the time and expense of litigation.