Hi, thank you for contacting JustAnswer.com. My name is Russell. I will do my best to provide the right answer to your question.
Was the black cartridge a Brother-OEM-original cartridge, rather than a refill, remanufactured, or 'Brother compatible' cartridge?
The problem might unfortunately be severe and lasting, rather than something you can fix yourself, judging by the error message and the circumstances as you have so far described them.
First, try unplugging the printer from the power. Leave it that way for over 1 hour.
Open the printer, meanwhile, while it is waiting. Examine the interior for loose debris, scraps, parts that have come loose, or anything of that sort. Esp. examine it for anything that might have been disturbed, or might have come loose, when you changed the cartridge... or, for something as simple as the cartridge not being fully in-place, the covers over them being loose or protruding, etc.
Also see whether the interior shows a lot of dust or dirt, even if only in remote corners. That could be important in this case.
Then plug it in again and try it once more.
If the error message persists, please reply telling me how old the printer is, and what you saw when you examined the interior, including whether the printer's interior is at all dirty. And I will advise you further.