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You should arrange to have your lumbar puncture done under fluoroscopy. This is a special machine that allows an interventional radiologist to watch under real time x-ray as the needle goes in. It allows him or her to precisely place the needle into the lumbar cistern where the cerebrospinal fluid collects.
You may be having a lumbar puncture headache. It is a fairly common side effect and can be quite severe when upright. This, and your back pain, would warrant a visit to urgent care or the ER. You probably need a shot of pain killers and some pills to take home until this subsides.
If he poked you that many times, I can assure you he poked the spinal canal, even if he did not get any fluid out. There could be a leak right now and you would not know it other than the headache. Some patients need spinal patching after a sub-optimal procedure like this.
Severe pain, as you describe, is considered an emergency, particularly if your usual pain meds are not helping and you cannot function normally.