(Q1) I was assuming the military had uniform codes and regulations, and that the federal government could not be trumped by state laws.
(A1) No, that's definitely not the case, especially in the situation that you are describing. The federal government does not decide who has custody of children, or under what circumstances. They have ceded that function to the states, and state laws on the issue of child custody control.
If you or your friends have ever been involved in a divorce, it will not have been a federal court case. If you have followed any of the debate over medical marijuana, you will notice that more than half a dozen states allow it; but the federal government does not. Conversely, the federal government requires that all working persons be paid a minimum wage - and most states do not have their own minimum wage laws.
The various reasons federal law or state law may control in a given situation, and why and when, are year long Constitutional Law and Civil Procedure courses in law school.
If you are interested in more information about why these topics, here is a website with free on-line law lectures from some of the top US Law schools: http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/live.htm
(Q2) However the state is Pennsylvania
(A2) Pennsylvania emancipation law is based on common law, which means that Courts have issued decisions deciding when minors are emancipated. I cannot point you to a specific statute. "Instead, the practice of granting judicial decrees of emancipation has grown out of Pennsylvania case law describing the circumstances under which a court may find that a minor is emancipated", which is a quote from this publication: http://s13025.gridserver.com/files/publications/consent2ndedition.pdf
Here is a published case on the issue of emancipation of minors entering military service - and if you review the decision, you will see other cases on the issue:
Maurer v. Maurer, 382 Pa.Super. 468, 475, 555 A.2d 1294, 1297-98 (1989), (available at http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=7918049906485588527&q=emancipation+minor+%22military%22&hl=en&as_sdt=800000000004)
(Q3) and the branch is Navy.
(A3) Here is a link to all Naval publications: http://doni.daps.dla.mil/default.aspx. You can look at these to determine the Navy's "shoelaces to food" obligations.
(Q4) My question was and is: Where can I find INFORMATION regarding laws that protect the rights of minors in the military. There rights as minors and the obligations of the MILITARY or FEDERAL GOVERMENT to protect them?
The second paragraph in your last reply says; the MILITARY'S obligation to minors who have been emancipated by entry onto active duty is the same as obligations it has to persons over the age of majority that have entered active duty.
(A4) It appears that you expect me to give you a federal law or military regulation that says that 17 year old sailors are entitled to special treatment or protection because of their age. I can't point you to that law because it doesn't exist. Minor sailors are emancipated and are adults under the law. They are treated the same as any other sailor. They make the same money; they receive the same training; and they fight the same wars.
I am concerned that because you thought the military assumed guardianship of minor sailors and that you keep asking me for law that states that the service has special obligations towards minors, some recruiter has mislead you or the child who wants to enlist. I can only tell you the law that is there, not what a recruiter may have said was there.