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It definitely sounds like one of the sam/fuse box modules went bad. There are two of them, a front and a rear one. They are typically sensitive to voltage changes from jumpstarts etc...especially the rear one. Did you have the vehicle jumpstarted?
The brake lights are stuck on in the rear, correct?
Do the front headlights and turn signals all work or do only the front turn signals work and not the back?
Do all of the turn signals work or only the front or rear?
But the headlights do turn on?
It definitely sounds like the rear sam computer was damaged due to the voltage fluctuation. Have you tried disconnecting the battery for about 10 minutes to see if that resets it?
If that doesn't work, then I'm afraid you'll have to replace the rear sam. A new one is a little expensive but I found one here http://www.ebay.com/itm/MERCEDES-C240-REAR-SAM-BCM-SIGNAL-ACQUISITION-MODULE-FUSEBOX-203-545-07-01-/221926416375?fits=Year%3A2001%7CModel%3AC240&hash=item33abd85ff7:g:41QAAOSwl9BWGCjd&vxp=mtr
To replace it, just expose the rear fuse box in the trunk. The rear sam assembly is the whole fuse box. Just peel back the panel on the left side of the trunk and replace this fuse box with sam assembly making sure all the fuses and relays are in the same location as the one you are taking out.
You shouldn't need to program it since it is coming out of another C240.
If you just click my profile, you should be able to request me directly.
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Let me know if the reset worked and/or if you have success with the rear sam after you install it.