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Elliott, LPCC, NCC
Elliott, LPCC, NCC, Psychotherapist
Category: Mental Health
Satisfied Customers: 7664
Experience:  35 years of experience as a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, National Certified Counselor and a college professor.
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What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into

Customer Question

What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into virtually every cell in the body?
o Why did humans not evolve with one central repository of DNA rather than having it replicated throughout the body?
o Assume that the hereditary information carried in genes and DNA is responsible for many differences observed in humans and other living things. How could just four different bases in DNA strands be responsible for the almost endless variety found in nature?
Submitted: 5 years ago.
Category: Mental Health
Expert:  Elliott, LPCC, NCC replied 5 years ago.
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Dear friend,

This is an excellent question, and the answer is simple. Each person begins with an egg and a sperm. The egg has half of the genetic material of the mother, and the sperm has half the genetic material of the father. They combine and the two halves come together to make the single cell that will become the human being. That cell splits in half and forms two complete cells with all of the genetic material. They do this for awhile, and each cell has all of the genetic material. They begin to specialize, and differentiate into the different organs and body parts. The complete genetic set is in every cell. The cells can only grow if they have instructions built in. If you cut your arm, your arm knows to grow back because of all of the surrounding genetic material giving directions to grow back as before. Right skin color, texture, blood type, etc. Every cell in the body dies and is replaced and so after a certain amount of time, the same body is made up of cells that were not there some months ago.

Genetic material is very sophisticated even though it is made up of four base strands, which can be short or EXTREMELY long. A human's DNA consists of millions of base pairs, while a bacteria is a lot shorter. Because the length is almost limitless, the possible number of combinations in almost infinite.

Enzymes also play an important factor in influencing how genes will react. Similar genes will react differently according to the enzyme influencing it. Furthermore, the bases can be arranged in any manner along each strand, which increases the many possibilities of gener arrangement and therefore the great variety in nature.

There are only 26 letters in our alphabet, but our libraries are filled with endless varieties of books of all kinds, and many millions of virtual information sites in cyberspace.

Computers only have a base of TWO - 0 and 1, and yet all information is stored used these codes. DNA has a base of FOUR - adenine, cytocine, guanine, and thymine and the largest human chromosome is about 220,000,000 base pairs, which is still microscopically small...There is plenty of room in the cells for this information.

One central depository could not be feasible, because every cell needs all of the information for replication and replacement.

Warm regards,

Elliott Sewell, LPCC, NCC
Customer: replied 5 years ago.
Relist: Other.
I need a bit more of a straight to the point answer, I have seen answers for example "What are some of the benefits of squeezing so much data into virtually every cell in the body?
Putting the entire genetic code into each cell in a living organism ensures cells have the information they need to replicate themselves. Replication, or mitosis, is necessary to replace damaged and dying cells.
Why did humans not evolve with one central repository of DNA rather than having it replicated throughout the body?
Humans were able to evolve because they did not possess a single repository for DNA. One single attack on the DNA repository, or even a single mutation, could spell the end of the bloodline. For that matter, how would cells be replaced as they died or become damaged? To put a spin on the question from my primary area of study, the situation is much like a company's computer network. As redundancy increases, so does the ability to recover from a disaster or circumvent a problem area.
Assume that the hereditary information carried in genes and DNA is responsible for many differences observed in humans and other living things. How could just four different bases in DNA strands be responsible for the almost endless variety found in nature?
The four bases produce endless variety because it is their sequence and location on the chromosomes that determine specific traits. Different chromosomes act together to determine some traits, further complicating the mathematics. There are certainly a definite number of possible DNA combinations, but that number is ***** large that no humans can wrap their minds around it."
The Answer that was given was a bit more complex if it can be a bit more straight and to the point it would be appreciated.
SORRY FOR THE TROUBLE
Expert:  Elliott, LPCC, NCC replied 5 years ago.
Dear friend,

It evolved that way, because it evolution would not be possible if the respository was in one place. If it was in one place then it wouldn't be in the zygotes (eggs and sperm) and therefore would not be passed on.

Furthermore DNA is subject to mutation, which happens commonly to some cells. Bedause we have billions of cells we have genetic backup to make repairs. If there was only one repository, then one mutation would render the person sterile or cause mutations (most of which are not viable).

I hope this is satisfactory to you. I like to please and I like to be able to get reimbursed from JustAnswer for my caring efforts.

Best wishes to you.

Elliott Sewell, LPCC, NCC