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A nasal swab can be performed.
Yes, colonization is typically in the nasal passages. While one swab might miss it, multiple swabs shouldn't. Either way, you can treat the nares with mupirocin antibacterial ointment just to be sure. The other possibilities would be that the sputum test was a false positive (which can happen in a hospital setting quite easily) or you have cleared it completely.
You could ask your doctor to treat you with mupirocon intranasal and then retest an induced sputum.
No. You can eradicate it. You can also use high dose penicillin. In some cases, it does come back. In these susceptible individuals it probabaly is quiescent anyway and does not cause harm...unless one gets very sick from something.
Again, this could be a lab error, or you could have eradicated it already on your own. You need to repeat the test. If still positive, ask your doctor for a referral to an infectious disease specialist, as our understanding of this organsim is still evolving, and he or she will know whether it needs to be treated and, if so, how to best do so to ensure eradication.
Post nasal drip is a sign of allergic rhinitis or sinusitis. It usually has nothing to do with mrsa. If you suspected a connection, you could ask your doctor to swab your throat to see if mrsa grows out...though this is unlikely.
They usually just test for strep. You would need to ask the lab specifically to test for staph aureus...they would tell you if it was meth resistant.