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Hi and thanks for the query.
This is known as a trigger thumb. It happens as a result of the inflammation of the synovial sheath Flexor pollicis longus tendon of the thumb. This causes a nodule to form on the sheath and the nodule gets stuck in the A1 pulley of the thumb. The first and foremost thing is to visit your PCP and get an appointment for a hand surgeon. First conservative treatment will be tried which is basically injecting a steroid in the sheath to bring down the inflammation. If that does not resolve this, then A1 pulley is incised under local anesthesia as an office procedure, this can be done per cutaenously (minimally invasive) as well as by open technique. Your Surgeon will be in a better position to discuss your options with you after having examined the thumb.
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Wish you good health.