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Additional Questions Retrieve the data set...

Additional Questions

Retrieve the data set “EA1.3.3 Governors Salaries.xls” from the CD or website.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

11.

1.

SSAc01.indd 402 6/19/06 7:54:08 PM

Choose appropriate classes and use Excel to create a histogram for the Governors’

salaries.

Explain why you picked the classes you did.

Explain what your histogram shows.

Create, by hand, a stemplot of the “points scored” from the “EA1.3.2 Super

Bowl.xls” data file.

How is this graph different from the histogram for the same variable you

created previously?

a.

b.

c.

2.

a.

Activity 1.3: SATs and the Super Bowl 403

SSAc01.indd 403 6/19/06 7:54:08 PM

404 Excel Activities

Which plot gives a better sketch of the data and why? What information from the table is not reflected in your graphs?

Summary

In this activity, you grouped data to create histograms by hand and using Excel.

With Excel, you created histograms in two different ways: as a bar graph using the

frequencies you computed and then adjusting the width of the bars so that there

were no gaps in between them, and as a histogram using the histogram function

in Excel, in which frequencies are computed automatically.

b.

c.

SSAc01.indd 404 6In this activity, you will use scatterplots to investigate the relationship between

the governor’s salary and the average per capita income in the state. You

will also analyze differences between scatterplots and other types of graphs.

The following table gives the average per capita income and the governor’s

salary in 2003 for each state in a group of nine northeastern states.

State Per Capita Income 2003 Governor’s Salary 2003

Connecticut 43,173 150,000

Maine 28,831 70,000

Massachusetts 39,815 135,000

New Hampshire 34,702 100,690

New Jersey 40,427 157,000

New York 36,574 179,000

Pennsylvania 31,998 142,142

Rhode Island 31,916 105,000

Vermont 30,740 127,456

SSAc02.indd 412 6/19/06 7:54:28 PM

Explain how you could use a bar graph to represent and interpret one or

more aspects of the data. Which aspects of the data would the bar graph

help interpret?

Would a histogram help you interpret the data, or an aspect of the data?

Explain.

Which type of graph would help you answer the question: Is there any relationship

between per capita income in a state and the governor’s salary?

1.

2.

3.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 413

SSAc02.indd 413 6/19/06 7:54:28 PM

414 Excel Activities

Create a scatterplot of the data using the two quantitative variables, “per

capita income” and “governor’s salary.”

Which variable did you use on the x-axis? Why?

Which variable did you use on the y-axis? Why?

4.

5.

6.

SSAc02.indd 414 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

Explain what your graph shows about the relationship of the two variables.

To analyze this relationship further you will create a scatterplot using data on

all 50 states. To do so, you will first create a two-column table that records the

governor’s salary and the average per capita income for each state.

Instructions to Use Excel to Create a

Table from Other Tables

Retrieve the file “EA2.2.1 Per Capita Income.xls” from the CD or website.

This file contains a list of all states and the per capita personal income for

each for 2003. (Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, www.bea.gov.)

Open the file “EA2.2.2 Governors Salaries.xls” from the CD or website, and

then follow instructions in part c to copy and paste the list of Governors’

Salaries into the worksheet “EA2.2.1 Per Capita Income.xls.”

First, ensure that both files contain all the states listed in the same order.

Then put the cursor at the top of column B, “Governors’ Salaries,” and click

to highlight the entire column. Select Edit from the menu bar and then

Copy to copy column.

Return to the per capita income worksheet. Place the cursor at the top of

column C, and then select Edit and Paste to insert the governors’ salaries

into column C of the per capita worksheet. You should now have three columns

in this worksheet.

7.

8.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 415

SSAc02.indd 415 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

416 Excel Activities

Create a scatterplot of this data set. You should change the scale of the horizontal

(or x) and vertical (or y) axes so the data are easier to read. (To change

the scale on an axis, point to the axis and either double-click or right-click

and select Format axis. Then on the Scale tab, enter the appropriate minimum

and maximum values for the axis.) What is a reasonable minimum

value of x to use? What about y?

Are there any trends or patterns to this data? Explain.

Are there any data points that appear to be “away from” the rest of the data? If

so, which one(s) and what makes them stand out?

9.

10.

11.

SSAc02.indd 416 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

Additional Questions

The file “EA2.2.3 Children in Poverty.xls,” which you will find on the CD or

website, contains the table shown here. This table gives the percentage of children

younger than 18 who were living below the poverty level in the U.S. from

1976 to 2001. Use Excel to create a scatterplot for this data table and write a

paragraph describing the trends shown by your graph. Does this scatterplot

represent a function? Why or why not? (Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica

Almanac 2004, pages 828–829.)

Year Percentage of Children Year Percentage of Children

1976 16.0 1989 19.6

1977 16.2 1990 20.6

1978 15.9 1991 21.8

1979 16.4 1992 22.3

1980 18.3 1993 22.7

1981 20.0 1994 21.8

1982 21.9 1995 20.8

1983 22.3 1996 20.5

1984 21.5 1997 19.9

1985 20.7 1998 18.9

1986 20.5 1999 16.9

1987 20.3 2000 16.2

1988 19.5 2001 16.3

1.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 417

SSAc02.indd 417 6/19/06 7:54:30 PM

418 Excel Activities

The table here (also available in the “EA2.2.4 US Farms.xls” file on the CD or

website) gives the total number of acres (in thousands) of land devoted to farming

in the U.S. and the farm population (in thousands) at ten-year increments

from 1900 to 1990. (Source: The New York Times Almanac 2004, page 302.)

Year Farm Acreage (in thousands) Farm Population (in thousands)

1900 841,202 29,835

1910 881,431 32,077

1920 958,677 31,974

1930 990,112 30,529

1940 1,065,114 30,547

1950 1,161,420 23,048

1960 1,176,946 15,635

1970 1,102,769 9,712

1980 1,039,000 6,051

1990 987,000 4,801

Create an appropriate scatterplot that you can use to analyze any trends

about the land used for farming throughout the 20th century. Describe

these trends.

2.

a.

SSAc02.indd 418 6/19/06 7:54:30 PM

Create a second scatterplot and use it to describe the relationship between the

number of acres used for farming and the total farm population in the U.S.

Summary

In this activity, you considered the differences among a bar graph, a histogram,

and a scatterplot and the information conveyed. You learned to copy and paste in

Excel. You looked at trends in a sample compared to trends in a full data set and

looked for unusual observations. You also investigated trends over time and relationships

between variables.

b.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 419

SSAc02.

Retrieve the data set “EA1.3.3 Governors Salaries.xls” from the CD or website.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

11.

1.

SSAc01.indd 402 6/19/06 7:54:08 PM

Choose appropriate classes and use Excel to create a histogram for the Governors’

salaries.

Explain why you picked the classes you did.

Explain what your histogram shows.

Create, by hand, a stemplot of the “points scored” from the “EA1.3.2 Super

Bowl.xls” data file.

How is this graph different from the histogram for the same variable you

created previously?

a.

b.

c.

2.

a.

Activity 1.3: SATs and the Super Bowl 403

SSAc01.indd 403 6/19/06 7:54:08 PM

404 Excel Activities

Which plot gives a better sketch of the data and why? What information from the table is not reflected in your graphs?

Summary

In this activity, you grouped data to create histograms by hand and using Excel.

With Excel, you created histograms in two different ways: as a bar graph using the

frequencies you computed and then adjusting the width of the bars so that there

were no gaps in between them, and as a histogram using the histogram function

in Excel, in which frequencies are computed automatically.

b.

c.

SSAc01.indd 404 6In this activity, you will use scatterplots to investigate the relationship between

the governor’s salary and the average per capita income in the state. You

will also analyze differences between scatterplots and other types of graphs.

The following table gives the average per capita income and the governor’s

salary in 2003 for each state in a group of nine northeastern states.

State Per Capita Income 2003 Governor’s Salary 2003

Connecticut 43,173 150,000

Maine 28,831 70,000

Massachusetts 39,815 135,000

New Hampshire 34,702 100,690

New Jersey 40,427 157,000

New York 36,574 179,000

Pennsylvania 31,998 142,142

Rhode Island 31,916 105,000

Vermont 30,740 127,456

SSAc02.indd 412 6/19/06 7:54:28 PM

Explain how you could use a bar graph to represent and interpret one or

more aspects of the data. Which aspects of the data would the bar graph

help interpret?

Would a histogram help you interpret the data, or an aspect of the data?

Explain.

Which type of graph would help you answer the question: Is there any relationship

between per capita income in a state and the governor’s salary?

1.

2.

3.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 413

SSAc02.indd 413 6/19/06 7:54:28 PM

414 Excel Activities

Create a scatterplot of the data using the two quantitative variables, “per

capita income” and “governor’s salary.”

Which variable did you use on the x-axis? Why?

Which variable did you use on the y-axis? Why?

4.

5.

6.

SSAc02.indd 414 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

Explain what your graph shows about the relationship of the two variables.

To analyze this relationship further you will create a scatterplot using data on

all 50 states. To do so, you will first create a two-column table that records the

governor’s salary and the average per capita income for each state.

Instructions to Use Excel to Create a

Table from Other Tables

Retrieve the file “EA2.2.1 Per Capita Income.xls” from the CD or website.

This file contains a list of all states and the per capita personal income for

each for 2003. (Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, www.bea.gov.)

Open the file “EA2.2.2 Governors Salaries.xls” from the CD or website, and

then follow instructions in part c to copy and paste the list of Governors’

Salaries into the worksheet “EA2.2.1 Per Capita Income.xls.”

First, ensure that both files contain all the states listed in the same order.

Then put the cursor at the top of column B, “Governors’ Salaries,” and click

to highlight the entire column. Select Edit from the menu bar and then

Copy to copy column.

Return to the per capita income worksheet. Place the cursor at the top of

column C, and then select Edit and Paste to insert the governors’ salaries

into column C of the per capita worksheet. You should now have three columns

in this worksheet.

7.

8.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 415

SSAc02.indd 415 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

416 Excel Activities

Create a scatterplot of this data set. You should change the scale of the horizontal

(or x) and vertical (or y) axes so the data are easier to read. (To change

the scale on an axis, point to the axis and either double-click or right-click

and select Format axis. Then on the Scale tab, enter the appropriate minimum

and maximum values for the axis.) What is a reasonable minimum

value of x to use? What about y?

Are there any trends or patterns to this data? Explain.

Are there any data points that appear to be “away from” the rest of the data? If

so, which one(s) and what makes them stand out?

9.

10.

11.

SSAc02.indd 416 6/19/06 7:54:29 PM

Additional Questions

The file “EA2.2.3 Children in Poverty.xls,” which you will find on the CD or

website, contains the table shown here. This table gives the percentage of children

younger than 18 who were living below the poverty level in the U.S. from

1976 to 2001. Use Excel to create a scatterplot for this data table and write a

paragraph describing the trends shown by your graph. Does this scatterplot

represent a function? Why or why not? (Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica

Almanac 2004, pages 828–829.)

Year Percentage of Children Year Percentage of Children

1976 16.0 1989 19.6

1977 16.2 1990 20.6

1978 15.9 1991 21.8

1979 16.4 1992 22.3

1980 18.3 1993 22.7

1981 20.0 1994 21.8

1982 21.9 1995 20.8

1983 22.3 1996 20.5

1984 21.5 1997 19.9

1985 20.7 1998 18.9

1986 20.5 1999 16.9

1987 20.3 2000 16.2

1988 19.5 2001 16.3

1.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 417

SSAc02.indd 417 6/19/06 7:54:30 PM

418 Excel Activities

The table here (also available in the “EA2.2.4 US Farms.xls” file on the CD or

website) gives the total number of acres (in thousands) of land devoted to farming

in the U.S. and the farm population (in thousands) at ten-year increments

from 1900 to 1990. (Source: The New York Times Almanac 2004, page 302.)

Year Farm Acreage (in thousands) Farm Population (in thousands)

1900 841,202 29,835

1910 881,431 32,077

1920 958,677 31,974

1930 990,112 30,529

1940 1,065,114 30,547

1950 1,161,420 23,048

1960 1,176,946 15,635

1970 1,102,769 9,712

1980 1,039,000 6,051

1990 987,000 4,801

Create an appropriate scatterplot that you can use to analyze any trends

about the land used for farming throughout the 20th century. Describe

these trends.

2.

a.

SSAc02.indd 418 6/19/06 7:54:30 PM

Create a second scatterplot and use it to describe the relationship between the

number of acres used for farming and the total farm population in the U.S.

Summary

In this activity, you considered the differences among a bar graph, a histogram,

and a scatterplot and the information conveyed. You learned to copy and paste in

Excel. You looked at trends in a sample compared to trends in a full data set and

looked for unusual observations. You also investigated trends over time and relationships

between variables.

b.

Activity 2.2: State Governors’ Salaries and Per Capita Income 419

SSAc02.

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