Apple does have the "Find My iPhone/iPod/iPad” feature available for iCloud users BUT the key fact is that you must have registered the device for this service at some point prior to losing it.
However, if you've ever registered the device with iCloud, it's possible this was enabled for you. You can sign in to the following site to see if the device is registered.
Note: You would sign in with the Apple ID used for iCloud or to make Store purchases.
If your device is registered there and it has not been removed from the network, you can send it messages, track it's location and remotely erase your personal data off the drive.
If you are running iOS 6 or later you will also have access to Lost mode. While in Lost mode, your device will keep track of where it’s been and report back to you any time you check in with the Find My iPhone app.
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