Hi Rob and Welcome. My Name is ***** ***** I look forward to assisting you today with your question.
There are two ways to accomplish this. You can use either iCloud
or iTunes application to sync your iPhone with your computer and vice versa.
To setup iCloud sync, follow the steps below.
First, on your iPhone go to Settings > iCloud and turn on all options. Then download and install iCloud Control Panel on your computer from here --> https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT204283
Open iCloud Control Panel and setup the sync. Refer this article --> https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201391
To setup iTunes sync, first download and install iTunes on your computer from here --> http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/
Open iTunes and connect your iPhone. Then select your iPhone in iTunes (click iPhone icon at the top left). Then select the Info option in the left column. Then enable "Sync Contacts, "Sync Calendars" etc and click Apply or Sync button (make sure you select Outlook in there).
Refer this aricle --> https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201253
That will do it.
If you have any questions or would like any additional information, please don't hesitate to ask.