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Second opinion] When a health insurance dubrogation cosim is…

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Second opinion] When a...

Second opinion] When a health insurance dubrogation cosim is paid out of a personal injury lawsuit does that cost get paid out of settlement funds BEFORE the lawyer takes his cut?

Lawyer's Assistant: Can you tell me what state this is in? And do you have copies of the medical records?

Subrogation claim

Lawyer's Assistant: Has anything been filed? If so, what?

TN

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I won settlement on a case because of a faulty kugel mesh that caused life threatening problems and several life threatening surgeries. After almost 10 years they finally came to a class action settlement and I was awarded a very minimal amount. My attorney said an old insurance company placed a subrogation hold on my settlement which would need to be paid first and then the remainder split 40/60 but now he says it will come only out of my share of the meager settlement.

Submitted: 7 months ago.Category: Legal
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Answered in 3 hours by:
12/3/2017
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago
N Cal Atty
N Cal Atty, Lawyer
Category: Legal
Satisfied Customers: 9,792
Experience: attorney at self
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I am sorry to hear this.

"Tennessee adheres and subscribes to the Made Whole Doctrine. Wimberly v. American Cas. Co. of Reading, Pa., 584 S.W.2d 200 (Tenn. 1979); York v. Sevier County Ambulance Auth., 8 S.W.3d 616 (Tenn. 1999); Abbott v. Blount County, 207 S.W.3d 732 (Tenn. 2006). An insurer’s contractual right to subrogation and reimbursement are both subject to the Made Whole Doctrine. York, supra. The Supreme Court in Wimberly established that the right of an insured to be made whole before subrogation rights could be enforced could not be waived or modified by the insurance policy. Whether an insurer’s right of subrogation is contractual or equitable only comes into play to determine “whether there is a right of subrogation in the first instance, rather than in the enforcement of such right.Id. While an insurer can not contractually modify the common law Made Whole Rule, a failure on the part of the insured to obtain contractually required permission of the insurer to a settlement preserves the latter’s subrogation rights even if the insured is not made whole. Eastwood v. Glens Falls Ins. Co., 646 S.W.2d 156, 158 (Tenn. 1983); Rader v. Traylor, No. 03A01-9403-CV-00079, 1994 Tenn. App. LEXIS 418, at *4-5 (Aug. 1, 1994). Thus, where the insurer does not participate in the settlement negotiations between its insured and the tortfeasor or does not waive any subrogation rights, such rights must be honored and the Made Whole Doctrine is inapplicable. This exception to the Made Whole Rule is subject however, to a further caveat which provides that if the parties agree that the insured has not been made whole or the underlying facts make clear that the recovery is for less than full compensation, the insurer’s subrogation claim is extinguished. Doss v. Tenn. Farmers Mut. Ins. Co., No. M2000-01971-COA-R3-CV, 2001 Tenn. App. LEXIS 906, at *10-11 (Dec. 10, 2001)." from here.

It sounds like you were not "made whole" and the insurer has no subrogation rights.

Please ask your attorney about this, you can print to page I linked to and give a copy to the attorney and ask if your attorney agrees that in your situation, there is no right to subrogation.

Even when there is a valid subrogation claim, the insurer is supposed to discount it to take account of the fact that you had to pay attorney fees to get any recovery. So this claim should be reduced by 40% even if it is valid since you indicated your attorney's fee would be 40%.

I hope this information is helpful.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
That was my second opinion and was far more thorough than the first just saying to check the contract I signed. I copied it all and am sending it on. Does “made whole” refer only to the settlement being enough to fairly compensate in eyes of a judge or does it also mean in a physical sense because after treatment I was never able to be “made whole” physically?Thank you.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
what are my rights and limitations as far as denying their meager settlement offer and taking my claim up with another law firm. I know people who were awarded far more than me fir minor kugel mesh issues and mine was one of the worst non-fatality cases so my doctors are shocked at the duration of this case and especially the award. It was a large law firm who took me on as part of a class action and just disbursed according to dividing up the settlement with all claimants giving slightly more to harder cases. Am I unable to take this to another attorney to seek a better result because of time constraints or legal protocol?
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

"Made whole" means you recovered all your medical costs, lost wages and other damages including pain the suffering.

Is there a web site that discussed the class action you were part of?

If this was a class action, why are your lawyers asking you to pay attorney fees? Didn't the court set the fees?

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I have no idea. I may be calling it the wrong thing but there was a group of us with the recalled kugel mesh and when mine was a problem and replaced my name went to their group. It is the Johnson law group in TX.
I am calling it a class action because I believe that is how they refer to it. I will look over my papers. It is a very famous Davol - kugel mesh recall and so many firms are representing ppl affected. I will see how it is worded and get back to you. Up front they said it would be a 40/60 split if they sought settlement.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

I have not been able to find the case on line, so yes, please get back to me with whatever information you have. Name of Court, name of case, name of settlement administrator (if any), date you were injured, State where you were injured. Anything you can provide that will help me find the actual court documents would help.

Thank you for your patience.

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Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

Are you listed as a plaintiff here?

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Johnson law firm just finally returned my call from two weeks ago, this morning. I did bring up your two points and offered to send all the information you provided. The law clerk informed me that there are many in this case but it is not class action but rather mass tort. She said the case was filed in Rhode Island so TN law will have nothing to do with it. My case should be Bonnie Pritchard vs Davol-Bard but I will be pulling out that mountain of paperwork soon to verify. She said she could not provide any answers to your questions but would ask the lawyer and try to get back to me next week (which means next month or never). She also asked for your name and said they couldn’t give any information to me but rather would need to talk to you directly. I told her it is MY case and I am clearly entitled to my own information, and will check it myself on my paperwork. She pressed me again for your name and number. I told her that you are a friend who is trying to help me out to be sure this is being handled fairly after all I have been through in this ordeal. Clearly I just want them to look into what you brought to my attention and to know that another lawyer is helping me. May be a feeble attempt—but trying to keep them on their toes, and be aware that I don’t necessarily hang on every word they utter!! Lol. I will provide all info I can shortly.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
it us filed in Rhode Island, but nor my attorney or I am listed on that particular one.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Clearly the court-appointed administrator of the funds does agree that the subrogation claim is paid out in full BEFORE releasing the remainder of the settlement to the law office. However, you can see above where they stated it would come out of my portion.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Not sure if this serial number helps.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

If your insurance policy was taken out in Tennessee, then Tennessee law controls whatever subrogation rights the insurer may have.

US Airways v. McCutcheon is posted here. It is NOT a US Supreme Court case and it is not an insurance subrogation case, it is an ERISA subrogation case. The statement by GRG: "In US Airways v. McCutcheon ... the US Supreme Court held that US Airways, as administrator of a self-funded ERISA plan for its employees, was entitled to receive full reimbursement for injury-related expenses paid by the plan, regardless of whether recovery consumed the claimant's net award" is a LIE. That is exactly what the McCutcheon case did NOT say. That case did say any subrogation should take into account the amount of your attorney fees.

I need to ask if you agreed to settle your claim against the maker of the mesh or if you can still take it to trial. You can tell your lawyers that you want to see a copy of any settlement agreement they claim that you signed or that applies to you. I want to see that. You can also tell your lawyers to tell your insurer that it has no subrogation rights under the cases cited in the first link I posted.

I think GRG should be removed as administrator for lying to you and for putting the interests of your insurer ahead of your interests. You can ask your attorneys to file a motion to remove the administrator and see how they react to that idea. GRG lied to you and we can prove that and I think the Court that appointed GRG as administrator needs to know that.

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Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

And they have the nerve to say: "GRG handles mass tort and class action matters with efficiency and scale. We have the resources needed to resolve liens for the biggest settlements, as well as the compassion, skill and discretion to handle the most delicate and sensitive cases."

at https://www.garretsongroup.com/services/mass-tort

If they were really trying to get you the biggest settlement, they would tell your insurer that is has no subrogation claim under Tennessee law because the settlement leaves you will less than full compensation. Instead they told you to accept the demand by your insurer in full, but your fees are 40% and your insurer only reduced the subrogation claim by less than 12%.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I feel like such a small fish in the great big ocean in this whole ordeal because my background is in medicine certainly not in law and they have me exactly where they want me. I’m usually I’d rather confident person who stands up for myself and does not let people push me around but this has been nothing but manipulation and control and making me feel stupid which I’m sure is what they do to all of their clients to keep them right where they want them.Like I said before this case has been going on for about 10 years. At one point the law firm told me straight out that the mesh company was clearly buying off judicial officials because all kinds of crazy rulings were happening every which way that they have never seen happening and it was just completely obvious to them that somebody was manipulating the courts. Sometime after that somebody else jumped into the arena which I’m thinking was the federal judiciary System and at that time everything was required to be moved to Rhode Island where they felt that it would have a better chance at a fair trial. Of course this held up everything they appointed all kinds of new lawyers overtop of things and new administration and they just were heavily involved in things. Obviously I don’t understand any of it but I did keep all my paperwork. At some point I did sign a paper that I would agree to their measly settlementBut that did not mention anything about insurance abrogation or how that will be paid out so I would imagine that initial agreement would no longer be valid with all the rest of that coming into play. Johnson law firm is clearly annoyed that they ever took these cases they’re crabby and irritated about anything that has to do with this particular lawsuit and I’m sure at this point they know that everything is out of their hands and over their head and it’s a battle bigger than they can fight and I think they just want to take as much money out of it that they can because it’s been 10 years going and at this point They don’t care about the victims in at all. My opinion they just want to be done with it all and it shows.I’ve been sick for quite some while so it’s been hard for me to stand top of things but I’m going to go start trying to organize all my papers by date and go through and figure out what I can about what I signed. Johnson Law Group clearly is not going to give me information. I do know that years back they said settlement was $80k that was offered and I had to sign a firm that I would accept that. I told them then that I wanted to be divided out of the group and go to court directly as Zi have a very strong case, but they said I would end up getting even less and quoted some cases that settled and how little they got but since that I know many ppl who received similar awards for the simple removal of a small hernia mesh because it may deteriorate in the future. My mesh was an enormous compilation of many individual ones to nearly cover my abdomen from hip to hip. Being only 5” 1’ and carrying triplets full term, my abdominal wall was obliterated. It took about 6 or seven years for my tissues to slowly weave thru the mesh and grow back together again. Once this finally happened, I was having all sorts of pain and bowel obstructions and I knew there were hernias opening up from my background and upon diagnostic tests we learned that my mesh was defective and breaking down and causing the issues so it all had to be removed. I believe I was in surgery for twelve hours and they were almost losing me several times and organs were literally ripping from all the mess of scar tissue that they stabilized me and packed me with loose sutures only to go back in the following week to try to finish but this time with an arsenal of the best surgeons at their disposal. I lost two organs and part of my intestine thru it all but obviously I pulled thru. Then I encountered several rounds of sepsis and I was just down for the count for months and months !! The head of infectious control determined it all needed to be removed again as the mesh was now too contaminated to let me heal..... and this went on and on!! Long story short is that my case is far from the typical 2 day hospital stay to remove a 2” hernia mesh and replace it because it was recalled and get a $50-$100k settlement that so many claimants experienced.No surgeon wants to come near me for ANY abdominal work as they describe my abdominal wall as “it is as if someone dumped a bottle of glue over a pile of fine threads and there is no way to separate anything without ripping it all”. That was my surgeons quote. That is all from scar tissue and will only continue to worsen. It is a surgeon’s nightmare. He was literally bawling in surgery because I kept coding and there was nothing he could do to finish up quickly and close.
The nurses told me all about it as He is a very stern man typically.
Sorry to go on, but it has truly been quite an ordeal and they won’t even listen to all ...
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
That has transpired but rather say it doesn’t matter because I didn’t die and there are only three categories so I fall into the middle group with all the others who had a mesh removed. I get the same award as they do. Makes no earthly sense. I asked about Lisa if consortium for my husband for a year, but they said he has no case. None of it has ever seemed right, but I am also not someone who ever planned to be in a lawsuit so I let too much go but now it is all just making me want to — “I am woman-hear me roar “ as the song says. I don’t need this little settlement as much as I need fairness and to have a voice finally.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I will now get to work on papers but I want to thank you because I am quite certain this is far out of the scope of the time you usually take with a question. ��
Am I speaking to a man or woman ? Lol. (Some things I didn’t say, not knowing! Lol)
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

I am glad you have the guts to stand up for your rights. Please do roar.

It is sad that you have fight your own lawyers to get them to do their job.

I'm a male but it should not matter, you can tell me anything you want. A lot of the customers here assume I'm a woman, I am sure I was in past lives.

The settlement administrator had no business lying to you in writing and if your attorneys refuse to call that to the attention of the Court, you can send a letter to the Court yourself complaining about it, but you have to send a copy of the letter to all the other lawyers in the case.

Is your law firm located in Tennessee?

Please confirm that your insurance agreement was made in Tennessee. I want to be sure I am correct that Tennessee subrogation law applies. Please read your insurance policy, sometimes a policy will have a choice of law clause that specifies that it is to be interpreted under the law of a different State.

There are mass tort attorneys in R.I. listed by location here.

You may want to consult one of them to see if there is any way to unglue your agreement to the settlement, possibly based on misrepresentation, and then take the case to trial or get a settlement closer to what would be fair in your situation. You said you signed the agrement based on the representation that you would revocer $80k; what are they actually proposing to pay on your claim? Misrepresentation is a basis to void an agreement...

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
The law firm is out of TX. Not sure how they got my number, but guessing from having the mesh removed as they called me.Yes we are in TN but sometimes we have had BC/BS of AL or GA over the years depending on what corporate chooses as we have several facilities in different states so I need to verify it was BC/BS of TN all those years ago.At the moment it is $80k minus the approx $12k to subrogation lien— so $68k would be left.
I don’t think they misrepresented that, but then the lien came up and changed that number.I don’t see how lawyers from TX are even handling a case in Rhode Island!! I know they involved other local attorneys but then said they were corrupt and tried to rip them off and fired them and needed me to sign a form agreeing to fire them. It has been one thing after another. Once I find the info I need, I will ask more about sending a letter to the Judge and other Lawyers in the case.
That I will enjoy doing too much!Their clerk was just beside herself trying to get me to divulge your contact info tho, so that seemed shady. Truly none of their business, and they can answer MY questions.What type of attorney are you?
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

General practice, mostly civil.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Settlement administrator is Garretson Resolution Group
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This includes a file number.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Additional
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is not letting me send any more screenshots for some reason. I have gathered info I wanted to share but cannot do so in this format.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I guess it only allows next picture after a word comment.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is my classification of 2A
I disputed it with the attorney as my case should have had the qualifications to be in the first classification segment but he told me there was nothing he could do. That classification was awarded between $550k and $200k per claimant
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This clearly say to me that all my expenses and fees are deducted from the gross.
(Underlined in Red)
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
In Red
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
But then they do add this
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is additional lien info.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is the total settlement
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This contains info underlined in red
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
this continues that:
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This highlighted portion details
Lien info:
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
it continues :
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is what I signed (this is a copy I made first) and clearly states that fees and liens are paid out of gross and what is left is net. Does it not ?
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This is the letter the law firm just sent out to Garretson on my behalf as I raised the questions of which you directed me:
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
This was the letter they just sent to me :
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
They addressed the question I raised about paying lien out of net award and sited info from past documents that I sent to you above. Apparently this was their response as they did not call me back but at least they are sending the letter out. They have not, however, addressed the concern Raised about a lien only be fulfilled because I sought legal representation so it should be paid out at. Discount of at least 40% is still valid.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I am also sending this as it gives the firm who us representing my past insurance company and it has file number included :
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I do not know the first thing about law, but to me these two documents seem to be important if we cannot get lien disqualified due to the “made whole doctrine”. The first one shows I signed agreement that liens get paid out of my net award and was signed in 2007. The second is the award acknowledgement form that I signed in 2014, in which I agree to take this settlement, but clearly stipulates that all expenses come out of the gross and what remains is the net. This means the $11,174.20 lien would actually take $6,694 directly from me. Considering that out of a $168,681.44 award I am currently only told to expect $68,000– (and they keep deducting more fees every day) every little bit of a win helps. This law firm is making 40% of this $23 mil mass tort settlement!!! Crazy!!Please let me know your advise and if I failed to provide anything necessary.Thank you so very much.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
The mesh was installed and then removed both in TN. The injury date would be the date the broken mesh was removed which was begun on 4/30/2007 and completed on 5/07/2007 which was performed both times in TN.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

You wrote:

This is what I signed (this is a copy I made first) and clearly states that fees and liens are paid out of gross and what is left is net. Does it not ?

It is not clear from that if the lien is deducted from the gross or the net. It is usually deducted from the client's share of a recovery.

I would be interested to know what the Administrator has to say about the made whole doctrine. Your lawyers could have cited some of the cases I cited when they wrote to the administrator about the made whole doctrine. They cpuld also have mentioned the fact that any subrogation claim should be reduced by the percentage of the attorney fees you incurred, not some arbitrary percentage chosen by the lien claimant.

I find it odd that the defendants get to categorize which class of injury each plaintiff had; I would never have agreed to that.

Have you ever told your attorneys that you should have been placed into a higher category of claimants?

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I absolutely got livid about it. I almost died and my issues and repeated surgeries lasted for years and I lost other organs from the surgery so I clearly argued. Attorney Johnson only spoke to me directly that once because I was livid but he clearly told me that he could not change my assignment as it was not up to him but some expert hired to do it, and I had to meet all criteria to make that category but they no longer had the broken mesh in custody to prove it was broken (although my medical records all bear witness to that fact) and that if I agreed to take that settlement he would do his best to be sure that any additional funds available out of group settlement would first go to me (because he cared so much). I should have gotten something in writing because I am sure they will not give anyone a penny more than they need to.
Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I was wondering if I can reach out to Blue cross’s attorney or Garretson directly will all the questions raised? Thinking Best not to divulge much to Rawlings but perhaps Garretson ?
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

Did you mention to your attorneys the issue about the administrator lying to the claimants?

I am not aware of any rule that prevents you from contacting the administrator.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
Do you mean that the cited cases where not valid? I am not understanding that part quite well enough to address it. Can you elaborate on that, please? I do not want to take anything to them without me clearly understanding it as I feel that confidence on my part is important to be taken seriously at all.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

As far as I know, the cases in my second post on the "made whole" doctrine are all still valid. I though the letter from your lawyers would have been stronger if it had cited some of those cases.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
I agree. That is why I want to contact them as well. My above comment though was in regards ***** ***** asking about the administrator lying. That is what I needed clarification about actually.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

As I wrote:

US Airways v. McCutcheon is posted here. It is NOT a US Supreme Court case and it is not an insurance subrogation case, it is an ERISA subrogation case. The statement by GRG: "In US Airways v. McCutcheon ... the US Supreme Court held that US Airways, as administrator of a self-funded ERISA plan for its employees, was entitled to receive full reimbursement for injury-related expenses paid by the plan, regardless of whether recovery consumed the claimant's net award" is a LIE. That is exactly what the McCutcheon case did NOT say. That case did say any subrogation should take into account the amount of your attorney fees.

The administrator in writing told you that US Airways was a US Supreme Court case, which it was not, The administrator also lied about what the Cort in that case wrote. I gave you a link to the case, you might want to read the actual court opinion

The administrator wrote that the case determined that "as administrator of a self-funded ERISA plan for its employees, was entitled to receive full reimbursement for injury-related expenses paid by the plan, regardless of whether recovery consumed the claimant's net award" but that is not what the opinion says.

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Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

Unfortunately I have seen attorneys lie to judges too often but it is inexcusable for a court appointed administrator to lie to the people it is supposed to be helping, and I think the Judge needs to hear about this.

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Customer reply replied 7 months ago
How do I find out what judge is overseeing this case and then I am best to write a letter, I presume?
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 7 months ago

The case was assigned to Judge Lisi but she retired and it is now asigned to CHIEF JUDGE WILLIAM E. SMITH but you should ask your attorneys to send the letter first. Please let me know if they will agree to do that.

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Customer reply replied 4 months ago
They closed this conversation and although I called to have it reopened it was not, until today finally, so now I can resume this conversation.Get this.
I sent a letter to my law group whom is representing me is the kugel mesh case. I explained that I believed the administrator was inaccurate with the case citing and all the issues we discussed including that I wanted them to address my concerns. They wrote back that I agreed (and signed) that I would accept settlement (even though at that time the subrogation claim was never known or discussed) so that I am bound to it. They also stated that they are my attorney and being paid only to represent me in this case against the mesh company, and if I feel the administrator is in error I need to hire a different lawyer to represent me in that!So they just plan on taking their millions, but clearly have no interest in the individual clients getting what is fair or right. I don’t feel like I have anything I can do in this fight, and I hate that as everyone deserves a voice. I certainly can not hire yet another attorney to dispute a $10,000 subrogation claim.Do you have any further advice?
Customer reply replied 4 months ago
Are you still getting my questions? I called customer service to open this dialogue up a week ago but I’m not sure this is working as I have not gotten your response.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 4 months ago

I'm on the road, I'm sorry for the delay. Please remind me which town your attorneys are in and I will look for malpractice attorneys there. I think your attorneys have aduty to deal with the subrogation issue as part of your case and maybe getting a local legal malpractice attorney to phone them will motivate them to do their job.

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Customer reply replied 4 months ago
The case is in Rhode Island
But The Johnson Law Firm is in Fort Worth, TX (not to be confused with Johnson Law Group in Houston).Would a malpractice attorney be on a contingency or paid by the hour? I fear none will be willing to take a stand against other lawyers but willing to try.Thank you and Safe Travels.
Lawyer: N Cal Atty, Lawyer replied 4 months ago

There are some Ft. Worth malpractice attorneys listed here.

This type of lawyer usually charges a contingent fee but may want an hourly fee to just send a letter to your existing lawyers. The letter might say that as part of representing you in the underlying claim, they have a duty to handle the subrogation claim. Or they might want to sue the settlement administrators for lying to you and acting in bad faith.

Please follow up o this with a Texas attorney.

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Dimitry K., Esq.

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The responses above are from individual Experts, not JustAnswer. The site and services are provided “as is”. To view the verified credential of an Expert, click on the “Verified” symbol in the Expert’s profile. This site is not for emergency questions which should be directed immediately by telephone or in-person to qualified professionals. Please carefully read the Terms of Service (last updated February 8, 2012).

DISCLAIMER: Answers from Experts on JustAnswer are not substitutes for the advice of an attorney. JustAnswer is a public forum and questions and responses are not private or confidential or protected by the attorney-client privilege. The Expert above is not your attorney, and the response above is not legal advice. You should not read this response to propose specific action or address specific circumstances, but only to give you a sense of general principles of law that might affect the situation you describe. Application of these general principles to particular circumstances must be done by a lawyer who has spoken with you in confidence, learned all relevant information, and explored various options. Before acting on these general principles, you should hire a lawyer licensed to practice law in the jurisdiction to which your question pertains.

The responses above are from individual Experts, not JustAnswer. The site and services are provided “as is”. To view the verified credential of an Expert, click on the “Verified” symbol in the Expert’s profile. This site is not for emergency questions which should be directed immediately by telephone or in-person to qualified professionals. Please carefully read the Terms of Service (last updated February 8, 2012).

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