Since divorce is an adversarial process it is wise to treat the other party as the opponent as they are looking out for their interest, which by definition are not the same as the other parties.
Texas is a community property state so this means that the court will consider that all property acquired during marriage is marital, except for that which was owned prior to marriage, or acquired by inheritance/gift.
The court will divide the court in a fair and equitable manner which is not necessarily equal; the factors the court will consider may include:
The income and property of each spouse at the time of the marriage, and at the time of the divorce;
The length of the marriage and the age and health of both spouses;
If there are minor children involved, the need of the spouse who has custody of the children to live in the marital residence and to use or own its household contents;
The loss of inheritance and pension rights of each spouse because of the divorce;
The loss of health insurance benefits of each spouse because of the divorce;
Any award of support or maintenance the court will be making;
Whether one spouse made contributions to marital property that the spouse does not have title to; for example, where one spouse helps the other spouse increase their ability to earn more money by getting a degree, license or certification;
The liquid or non-liquid character of all marital property (“liquid” means that the property can easily be converted to cash);
The probable future financial circumstances of each party;
The impossibility or difficulty of determining the value of certain assets, like interests in a business, and whether one spouse should be awarded the business so it can be run without interference by the other spouse;
The tax consequences to each party;
Whether either spouse has wasted or used up any of the marital property while the divorce was ongoing;
Whether either spouse transferred or disposed of marital property at less than market value, knowing that the divorce would be happening;
any other factor the court deems relevant.
So as you can see, the individual judge assigned to the case has great discretion, so it is difficult to predict in advance what the judge may rule. An attorney that is familiar with the particular judge may be better able to provide an estimation based on the judge's past rulings.
Most insurance policies will not insure a former spouse as a matter of their internal policy.
As for spousal support you are correct; the spouse that has earned less may be awarded alimony in the amount the court determines to be fair.
The court can also award one party legal fees to level the playing field, so the spouse can hire an attorney and request the other spouse pay for the fees; representation is key so one has an advocate to protect one's interests.
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