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There is no difference between filing for probate with the judgment existing against assets of the estate or with no judgment existing. The judgment creditor simply has to be notified or served with a copy of the probate papers and the "Notice to Creditors". I would strongly recommend you consider hiring an attorney to handle this matter for you because probates in Texas are extremely complex, you can be personally liable to creditors or the heirs if you make any mistakes, and the laws are antiquated and often make no sense.
As you may know, creditors in Texas are assigned a priority level and this judgment creditor will likely be assigned a Level 1. You wouldn't be able to sell the house or pass any assets to any heirs until a judgment creditor is paid. Although often they will accept something less than the full payment.
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