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I am sorry to hear about this situation.
Does he need to file a "case managment statement" prior to showing up in court?
Generally speaking, no. See HERE. Most small claims court cases do not require case management statements. He can check with the clerk of the court to get a copy of the local rules to see if that court requires it. Most do not in such cases.
Also, he states to me that he tried to resolve these issues last year with the loan manager of the financial institution where he had the loan and the loan manager refused to help. Could that be a viable defense in court?
No. Attempts to settle a debt is not an affirmative defense to the debt. In addition, generally speaking, whatever is stated in mediation/arbitration/negotiation for the debt can generally not be used as evidence, anyhow.
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