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Unless a different schedule is set by order of the court, appellant’s brief is due 40 days after docketing of appeal (regardless of completeness of the record); appellee’s brief 30 days after appellant’s brief is filed; and any reply brief 14 days after appellee’s brief. Fed. R. App. P. 31(a); Cir. R. 31(a). However, these are the general rules and the time limits should be checked for each individual case to be sure that the court hasn't set a different time, etc.
In addition, most attorneys try to leave themselves some leeway and will plan on submitting the brief 7-10 days before it is actually due in case there is some kind of issue.
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The time isn't calculated off of your filing your notice of appeal, pursuant to Rule FRAP 31(a) it is calculated off of the date the appeal is docketed (the record is filed). That date is 40 days following the date the record is filed unless the court specifies a different date.
A trial court vacates a judgment following a Motion to vacate a Judgment. An appeal is heard by the Court of Appeals.
They're completely different things.