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As far as prosecuted, they would have to prove you did not return the laptop to the storage where it belongs. They would have to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that you never returned it and if you put it in the cabinet then the chances of them claiming 6 weeks later it was missing amounting to enough evidence against you would be slim to none.
If you followed company procedures with the laptop and checking it out, then you should not be terminated for good cause for this either, since they did not discover it missing for 6 weeks and anyone could have taken it in that time. AS employment in AZ is at will, meaning the employer could terminate you for no good cause, they could still terminate you, but they would be hard pressed to prove good cause of you taking the laptop because of the time frame between when you borrowed and returned it and the time it ended up missing means there is no way to connect you to it being missing.
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