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What if he misses his court date and leaves the country within…

Customer Question
What if he misses his...
What if he misses his court date and leaves the country within the 90 days?

Do the agents come after the 90 days or immediately after he misses court?

If he shows up in court and the deportation order is set can the detain him right away or his he given a date to be out of the country? He was not given a baggage order.

Will the agents bother family, friends, etc?

Do they go after every single person?
Submitted: 8 years ago.Category: Legal
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Answered in 23 minutes by:
6/14/2010
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago
Andrea, Esq.
Andrea, Esq., Attorney
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Let me get you the Title and section of the United States Code, so that you can refer to it.

 

When you see the sections I am referring to you will realize that the Judge has wide discretion in these cases; The Judge can even suspend the deportation Order and, if he is so inclined and he can be persuaded, the Judge can also grant "hardship" exceptions.

 

Let me get you the relevant sections and you will understand that I am not trying to evade any of your questions, it is just difficult to guess what an Immigration Judge will decide and these decisions are determined on a case by case basis, depending on the facts, the alien involved, the alien's background, etc.

 

________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

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If you have questions in the future, feel free to ask for me by typing my name at the beginning of your question

____________________________________________________

 

 

ANDREA, JD, LLM

MEMBER, NY & PA BAR

 

Don't forget to leave positive feedback!

 

Ask Your Own Legal Question
Customer reply replied 8 years ago
He was informed that because of him being an aggravated felon he doesn't have access to any forms of relief. He was arrested on serious drug felonies which cannot be reduced. The catch is that he was never sentenced to any jail time, nor a suspended sentence. He was only given 2 years probation. The case was over 5 years ago and he has since completed his probation and has been out of trouble ever since.

I hope this helps.
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

I just lost the entire section I had for you. I will have to rewrite it. Thank you for your patience

 

ANDREA

Ask Your Own Legal Question
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

__________________________________________________

 

 

 

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____________________________________________________

 

 

ANDREA, JD, LLM

MEMBER, NY & PA BAR

Don't forget to leave positive feedback!

 

 

Ask Your Own Legal Question
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

Ask Your Own Legal Question
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

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Ask Your Own Legal Question
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

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Ask Your Own Legal Question
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

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Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

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Customer reply replied 8 years ago
§ 1253. Penalties related to removal
(a) Penalty for failure to depart
(1) In general
Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-
(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court

I dont understand this. Does he have 90 days until they start looking for him? Or if he misses his court date but leaves before 90 days is it still a crime, or can he just leave?

Ive already done tons of research for him, and I have already read all that you sent me. Every time I ran into this section I got really confused about the 90 day thing.

Thank you in advance.
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

We seem to be having technical problems. My original Answer to you got lost in cyberspace. My second Answer repeated itself 4 times. I apologize for this inconvenience.

 

The alien would have a maximum of 90 days from the date of the Judge's Order, or a shorter period of time, if the Judge's Order stated a shorter period of time.

 

If the alien misses his Court Date, first, the Judge would issue a Bench Warrant for his arrest, and second, he would have the USCIS agents looking for him and when they find him, would literally take him physically before the Judge. The Court date is not an invitation being extended to the alien, it is an Order of the Court that he appear before the Judge and have his status adjudicated and his presence in the United States decided.

 

In light of the fact that this alien falls in the category of "Deportable Aliens" as listed in Section 1227, it would not be a good idea for him to play games either with the Court, or with the USCIS agents. Additionally, under 8 USC Section 1252, State and local law enforcement officers are empowered to assist the Federal agents in locating and arresting the alien.

 

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It does not matter that an alien received probation or a suspended sentence. The determining factor is what sentence the crime carried, not what sentence the alien received. Unfortunately, the Court does not care how much time has elapsed since the commission of the crime or the conviction. The fact that an alien was convicted of a "deportable offense" determines the Judge's decision.

 

But as you will see in the relevant sections I have reprinted for your reference, the Judge has great latitude and a great deal of discretion. The Judge can look to all the circumstances surrounding the case and even grant a "hardship allowance" and suspend the alien's sentence and even suspend his deportation. There is no check list to see if an alien qualifies; This is determined by the Judge on a case by case basis.

 

If there is a particular section on which you need clarification or further explanation, please do not hesitate to let me know and I will be glad to clarify it further.

§ 1252c. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens

 

(a) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent permitted by relevant State and local law, State and local law enforcement officials are authorized to arrest and detain an individual who-

(1) is an alien illegally present in the United States; and

(2) has previously been convicted of a felony in the United States and deported or left the United States after such conviction,

but only after the State or local law enforcement officials obtain appropriate confirmation from the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the status of such individual and only for such period of time as may be required for the Service to take the individual into Federal custody for purposes of deporting or removing the alien from the United States.

(b) Cooperation

The Attorney General shall cooperate with the States to assure that information in the control of the Attorney General, including information in the National Crime Information Center, that would assist State and local law enforcement officials in carrying out duties under subsection (a) of this section is made available to such officials.

 

 

 

§ 1253. Penalties related to removal

(a) Penalty for failure to depart

(1) In general

Any alien against whom a final order of removal is outstanding by reason of being a member of any of the classes described in section 1227 (a) of this title, who-

(A) willfully fails or refuses to depart from the United States within a period of 90 days from the date of the final order of removal under administrative processes, or if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the court,

(B) willfully fails or refuses to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to the alien's departure,

(C) connives or conspires, or takes any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering the alien's departure pursuant to such, or

(D) willfully fails or refuses to present himself or herself for removal at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order,

shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned not more than four years (or 10 years if the alien is a member of any of the classes described in paragraph (1)(E), (2), (3), or (4) of section 1227 (a) of this title), or both.

(2) Exception

It is not a violation of paragraph (1) to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of removal or for the purpose of securing the alien's release from incarceration or custody.

(3) Suspension

The court may for good cause suspend the sentence of an alien under this subsection and order the alien's release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as-

(A) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien;

(B) the effect of the alien's release upon the national security and public peace or safety;

(C) the likelihood of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would make the alien deportable;

(D) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which the alien's removal is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States;

(E) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or removal facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered removed; and

(F) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.

(b) Willful failure to comply with terms of release under supervision

An alien who shall willfully fail to comply with regulations or requirements issued pursuant to section 1231 (a)(3) of this title or knowingly give false information in response to an inquiry under such section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Penalties relating to vessels and aircraft

(1) Civil penalties

(A) Failure to carry out certain orders

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has violated subsection (d) or (e) of section 1231 of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $2,000 for each violation.

(B) Failure to remove alien stowaways

If the Attorney General is satisfied that a person has failed to remove an alien stowaway as required under section 1231 (d)(2) of this title, the person shall pay to the Commissioner the sum of $5,000 for each alien stowaway not removed.

(C) No compromise

The Attorney General may not compromise the amount of such penalty under this paragraph.

(2) Clearing vessels and aircraft

(A) Clearance before decision on liability

A vessel or aircraft may be granted clearance before a decision on liability is made under paragraph (1) only if a bond approved by the Attorney General or an amount sufficient to pay the civil penalty is deposited with the Commissioner.

(B) Prohibition on clearance while penalty unpaid

A vessel or aircraft may not be granted clearance if a civil penalty imposed under paragraph (1) is not paid.

 

§ 1227. Deportable aliens

(a) Classes of deportable aliens Any alien (including an alien crewman) in and admitted to the United States shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be removed if the alien is within one or more of the following classes of deportable aliens: (1) Inadmissible at time of entry or of adjustment of status or violates status (A) Inadmissible aliens Any alien who at the time of entry or adjustment of status was within one or more of the classes of aliens inadmissible by the law existing at such time is deportable. (B) Present in violation of law Any alien who is present in the United States in violation of this chapter or any other law of the United States, or whose nonimmigrant visa (or other documentation authorizing admission into the United States as a nonimmigrant) has been revoked under section 1201 (i) of this title, is deportable. (C) Violated nonimmigrant status or condition of entry (i) Nonimmigrant status violators Any alien who was admitted as a nonimmigrant and who has failed to maintain the nonimmigrant status in which the alien was admitted or to which it was changed under section 1258 of this title, or to comply with the conditions of any such status, is deportable. (ii) Violators of conditions of entry Any alien whom the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies has failed to comply with terms, conditions, and controls that were imposed under section 1182 (g) of this title is deportable. (D) Termination of conditional permanent residence (i) In general Any alien with permanent resident status on a conditional basis under section 1186a of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien spouses and sons and daughters) or under section 1186b of this title (relating to conditional permanent resident status for certain alien entrepreneurs, spouses, and children) who has had such status terminated under such respective section is deportable. (ii) Exception Clause (i) shall not apply in the cases described in section 1186a (c)(4) of this title (relating to certain hardship waivers). (E) Smuggling (i) In general Any alien who (prior to the date of entry, at the time of any entry, or within 5 years of the date of any entry) knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is deportable. (ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153 (a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (iii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of the offense was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law. (F) Repealed. Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, § 671(d)(1)(C), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-723 (G) Marriage fraud An alien shall be considered to be deportable as having procured a visa or other documentation by fraud (within the meaning of section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title) and to be in the United States in violation of this chapter (within the meaning of subparagraph (B)) if- (i) the alien obtains any admission into the United States with an immigrant visa or other documentation procured on the basis of a marriage entered into less than 2 years prior to such admission of the alien and which, within 2 years subsequent to any admission of the alien in the United States, shall be judicially annulled or terminated, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such marriage was not contracted for the purpose of evading any provisions of the immigration laws, or (ii) it appears to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien has failed or refused to fulfill the alien's marital agreement which in the opinion of the Attorney General was made for the purpose of procuring the alien's admission as an immigrant. (H) Waiver authorized for certain misrepresentations The provisions of this paragraph relating to the removal of aliens within the United States on the ground that they were inadmissible at the time of admission as aliens described in section 1182 (a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, whether willful or innocent, may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be waived for any alien (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(D)) who- (i) (I) is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and (II) was in possession of an immigrant visa or equivalent document and was otherwise admissible to the United States at the time of such admission except for those grounds of inadmissibility specified under paragraphs (5)(A) and (7)(A) of section 1182 (a) of this title which were a direct result of that fraud or misrepresentation. (ii) is a VAWA self-petitioner. A waiver of removal for fraud or misrepresentation granted under this subparagraph shall also operate to waive removal based on the grounds of inadmissibility directly resulting from such fraud or misrepresentation. (2) Criminal offenses (A) General crimes (i) Crimes of moral turpitude Any alien who- (I) is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years in the case of an alien provided lawful permanent resident status under section 1255 (j) of this title) after the date of admission, and (II) is convicted of a crime for which a sentence of one year or longer may be imposed, is deportable. (ii) Multiple criminal convictions Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct, regardless of whether confined therefor and regardless of whether the convictions were in a single trial, is deportable. (iii) Aggravated felony Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. (iv) High speed flight Any alien who is convicted of a violation of section 758 of title 18 (relating to high speed flight from an immigration checkpoint) is deportable. (v) Failure to register as a sex offender Any alien who is convicted under section 2250 of title 18 is deportable. (vi) Waiver authorized Clauses (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a criminal conviction if the alien subsequent to the criminal conviction has been granted a full and unconditional pardon by the President of the United States or by the Governor of any of the several States. (B) Controlled substances (i) Conviction Any alien who at any time after admission has been convicted of a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana, is deportable. (ii) Drug abusers and addicts Any alien who is, or at any time after admission has been, a drug abuser or addict is deportable. (C) Certain firearm offenses Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted under any law of purchasing, selling, offering for sale, exchanging, using, owning, possessing, or carrying, or of attempting or conspiring to purchase, sell, offer for sale, exchange, use, own, possess, or carry, any weapon, part, or accessory which is a firearm or destructive device (as defined in section 921 (a) of title 18) in violation of any law is deportable. (D) Miscellaneous crimes Any alien who at any time has been convicted (the judgment on such conviction becoming final) of, or has been so convicted of a conspiracy or attempt to violate- (i) any offense under chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason and sedition) of title 18 for which a term of imprisonment of five or more years may be imposed; (ii) any offense under section 871 or 960 of title 18; (iii) a violation of any provision of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) or the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 App. U.S.C. 1 et seq.); or (iv) a violation of section 1185 or 1328 of this title, is deportable. (E) Crimes of domestic violence, stalking, or violation of protection order, crimes against children and (i) Domestic violence, stalking, and child abuse Any alien who at any time after admission is convicted of a crime of domestic violence, a crime of stalking, or a crime of child abuse, child neglect, or child abandonment is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "crime of domestic violence" means any crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18) against a person committed by a current or former spouse of the person, by an individual with whom the person shares a child in common, by an individual who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the person as a spouse, by an individual similarly situated to a spouse of the person under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction where the offense occurs, or by any other individual against a person who is protected from that individual's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the United States or any State, Indian tribal government, or unit of local government. (ii) Violators of protection orders Any alien who at any time after admission is enjoined under a protection order issued by a court and whom the court determines has engaged in conduct that violates the portion of a protection order that involves protection against credible threats of violence, repeated harassment, or bodily injury to the person or persons for whom the protection order was issued is deportable. For purposes of this clause, the term "protection order" means any injunction issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts of domestic violence, including temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders or provisions) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding. (F) Trafficking Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(H) of this title is deportable. (3) Failure to register and falsification of documents (A) Change of address An alien who has failed to comply with the provisions of section 1305 of this title is deportable, unless the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such failure was reasonably excusable or was not willful. (B) Failure to register or falsification of documents Any alien who at any time has been convicted- (i) under section 1306 (c) of this title or under section 36(c) of the Alien Registration Act, 1940, (ii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, any provision of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.), or (iii) of a violation of, or an attempt or a conspiracy to violate, section 1546 of title 18 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents), is deportable. (C) Document fraud (i) In general An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is deportable. (ii) Waiver authorized The Attorney General may waive clause (i) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was incurred solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and no other individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this clause. (D) Falsely claiming citizenship (i) In general Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any Federal or State law is deportable. (ii) Exception In the case of an alien making a representation described in clause (i), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such representation. (4) Security and related grounds (A) In general Any alien who has engaged, is engaged, or at any time after admission engages in- (i) any activity to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information, (ii) any other criminal activity which endangers public safety or national security, or (iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means, is deportable. (B) Terrorist activities Any alien who is described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 1182 (a)(3) of this title is deportable. (C) Foreign policy (i) In general An alien whose presence or activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is deportable. (ii) Exceptions The exceptions described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(C) of this title shall apply to deportability under clause (i) in the same manner as they apply to inadmissibility under section 1182 (a)(3)(C)(i) of this title. (D) Participated in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing Any alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 1182 (a)(3)(E) of this title is deportable. (E) Participated in the commission of severe violations of religious freedom Any alien described in section 1182 (a)(2)(G) of this title is deportable. (F) Recruitment or use of child soldiers Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is deportable. (5) Public charge Any alien who, within five years after the date of entry, has become a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen since entry is deportable. (6) Unlawful voters (A) In general Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is deportable. (B) Exception In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be deportable under any provision of this subsection based on such violation. (7) Waiver for victims of domestic violence (A) In general The Attorney General is not limited by the criminal court record and may waive the application of paragraph (2)(E)(i) (with respect to crimes of domestic violence and crimes of stalking) and (ii) in the case of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty and who is not and was not the primary perpetrator of violence in the relationship- (i) [1] upon a determination that- (I) the alien was acting is [2] self-defense; (II) the alien was found to have violated a protection order intended to protect the alien; or (III) the alien committed, was arrested for, was convicted of, or pled guilty to committing a crime- (aa) that did not result in serious bodily injury; and (bb) where there was a connection between the crime and the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (B) Credible evidence considered In acting on applications under this paragraph, the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the application. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General. (b) Deportation of certain nonimmigrants An alien, admitted as a nonimmigrant under the provisions of either section 1101 (a)(15)(A)(i) or 1101 (a)(15)(G)(i) of this title, and who fails to maintain a status under either of those provisions, shall not be required to depart from the United States without the approval of the Secretary of State, unless such alien is subject to deportation under paragraph (4) of subsection (a) of this section. (c) Waiver of grounds for deportation Paragraphs (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(D), and (3)(A) of subsection (a) of this section (other than so much of paragraph (1) as relates to a ground of inadmissibility described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1182 (a) of this title) shall not apply to a special immigrant described in section 1101 (a)(27)(J) of this title based upon circumstances that existed before the date the alien was provided such special immigrant status. (d) Administrative stay (1) If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that an application for nonimmigrant status under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101 (a)(15) of this title filed for an alien in the United States sets forth a prima facie case for approval, the Secretary may grant the alien an administrative stay of a final order of removal under section 1231 (c)(2) of this title until- (A) the application for nonimmigrant status under such subparagraph (T) or (U) is approved; or (B) there is a final administrative denial of the application for such nonimmigrant status after the exhaustion of administrative appeals. (2) The denial of a request for an administrative stay of removal under this subsection shall not preclude the alien from applying for a stay of removal, deferred action, or a continuance or abeyance of removal proceedings under any other provision of the immigration laws of the United States. (3) During any period in which the administrative stay of removal is in effect, the alien shall not be removed. (4) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General to grant a stay of removal or deportation in any case not described in this subsection.

 

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Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

We seem to be having technical problems. My original Answer to you got lost in cyberspace. My second Answer repeated itself 4 times. I apologize for this inconvenience.



The alien would have a maximum of 90 days from the date of the Judge's Order, or a shorter period of time, if the Judge's Order stated a shorter period of time.

If the alien misses his Court Date, first, the Judge would issue a Bench Warrant for his arrest, and second, he would have the USCIS agents looking for him and when they find him, would literally take him physically before the Judge. The Court date is not an invitation being extended to the alien, it is an Order of the Court that he appear before the Judge and have his status adjudicated and his presence in the United States decided.

In light of the fact that this alien falls in the category of "Deportable Aliens" as listed in Section 1227, it would not be a good idea for him to play games either with the Court, or with the USCIS agents. Additionally, under 8 USC Section 1252, State and local law enforcement officers are empowered to assist the Federal agents in locating and arresting the alien.
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Customer reply replied 8 years ago
So considering that his lawyer knows how to shmooze with the removal officer, and the judge is slightly compassionate, he could try to get another 90 days... that sounds great, considering the circumstances.

I will let him know that he should not play games with the court under any circumstance and that if he plays by the rules he might be able to get himself another 90 days max.

Is this also considering he is an aggravated felon?

Correct me if Im wrong?

Last question and I pay, promise! You have been a HUGE help. I thank you and appreciate your time very much.
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

I think you may have misunderstood my Answer. The alien would have 90 days, maximum to leave - That is 90 days from the entering of the Order by the Judge, unless the Judge specifies a shorter period of time. The alien should just make sure that all his T's are crossed and all his I's are dotted.

 

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Customer reply replied 8 years ago
I believe I do understand your answer.

He would have a maximum of 90 days, unless the judge says otherwise, from the day the judge enters the order of deportation, which would be during his sentencing appearance. (ex: he shows up to court on june 30, the order is set, and he would have a max of 90 days from that date, best case scenario)

He has made two appearances, the first where he was given time to find an attorney, and the second where his attorney asked for prep time. His upcoming date, as he was told by his attorney, will be sentencing, because he is an aggravated felon and there is no form of relief. From my understanding this would be the appearance in which the order is set. He is scared that they will detain him at this appearance. He has lived in the US for 30 years after moving here when he was two, his whole family is in the US. He knows nothing of his country of citizenship. He has been unemployed due to the difficulty of finding a job as a felon. He has barely any money and this is causing a huge heartache with him, his friends, and family. All he wants is to spend more time with his family before being separated from them permanently.

Once again, WE ALL appreciate your help and time very much.


Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

If the alien has always been in Court for all the hearing dates, there really is no reason to detain him because he has shown good faith in obeying all of the Court's Orders and directives.

 

If he has lived in the United States since he was 2 years old, if his entire family is in the United States and he knows nothing and nobody in the country of his birth, his lawyer should have made a plea to the Judge to consider his circumstances and consider this a "Hardship" case which I mentioned in my previous answers. I had also previously mentioned that Judges have a great deal of discretion in these cases and decided each case on its own merits. Your friend's lawyer should very quickly and immediately have some very serious discussions with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security about considering the special circumstances of this particular alien since deporting him would involve breaking up an entire family. The Attorney should also consider filing a Motion with the Judge, requesting that he be permitted to submit this additional evidence for his consideration. New evidence will not be accepted for the first time on appeal, at that time it will be too late and the Appeals Court will not consider it.

 

 

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Customer reply replied 8 years ago
One final question, is the hardship waiver available to aggravated felons?
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

As I stated before, there is no check list that we can follow, the Judges decide each case on its own merits and determine waivers on a case by case basis after considering all of the surrounding circumstances, the aliens background, the impact his departure will have on family members, etc.

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Customer reply replied 8 years ago
well, as he was told, because of him being an aggravated felon he is not open to ANY kinds of relief. He was never told about any type of waiver.

Was he misinformed?
Lawyer: Andrea, Esq., Attorney replied 8 years ago

I cannot really say because I do not know what, or how his lawyer advised him, but it is clear that from just the few sections I reprinted in my previous Answers that there may very well have been situations which should have been explored by his lawyer.

 

I, too, immigrated to the United States when I was 3 years old and if I were faced with the possibility of being deported to the country of my birth and leaving my family in the United States, it would work a severe hardship on me, not to mention the irreparable emotional harm I and my American born children would suffer.

 

So, this was certainly a path which was worth pursuing and the lawyer should do his darndest to present this to the Judge before the Judge issues his decision and sentence.

 

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The responses above are from individual Experts, not JustAnswer. The site and services are provided “as is”. To view the verified credential of an Expert, click on the “Verified” symbol in the Expert’s profile. This site is not for emergency questions which should be directed immediately by telephone or in-person to qualified professionals. Please carefully read the Terms of Service (last updated February 8, 2012).

DISCLAIMER: Answers from Experts on JustAnswer are not substitutes for the advice of an attorney. JustAnswer is a public forum and questions and responses are not private or confidential or protected by the attorney-client privilege. The Expert above is not your attorney, and the response above is not legal advice. You should not read this response to propose specific action or address specific circumstances, but only to give you a sense of general principles of law that might affect the situation you describe. Application of these general principles to particular circumstances must be done by a lawyer who has spoken with you in confidence, learned all relevant information, and explored various options. Before acting on these general principles, you should hire a lawyer licensed to practice law in the jurisdiction to which your question pertains.

The responses above are from individual Experts, not JustAnswer. The site and services are provided “as is”. To view the verified credential of an Expert, click on the “Verified” symbol in the Expert’s profile. This site is not for emergency questions which should be directed immediately by telephone or in-person to qualified professionals. Please carefully read the Terms of Service (last updated February 8, 2012).

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