I'll move on to (c) for now...
(c) a $50,000 Visa bill Dom ran up on a wildly extravagant (to put it mildly) three-week trip to Europe he completed less than two weeks before filing for bankruptcy
This is not likely dischargeable if the creditor timely files an objection to discharge or an adversary proceeding, but will be discharged if the creditor fails to act. I believe the Bankruptcy Rules require the creditor to file an adversary proceeding challenging the dischargeability of the debt, though I have seen a couple of creditors try to do it with an objection though I think the objection approach is procedurally flawed.
In any case, 11 U.S.C. 523(a)(2)(C) (see here) provides that charges, to the extent obtained by fraud or false pretenses (i.e. intending to never pay them back), for consumer debts owed to a single creditor and aggregating more than $500 for luxury goods or services incurred by an individual debtor on or within 90 days before the bankruptcy petition is filed are presumed to be nondischargeable; and cash advances aggregating more than $750 that are extensions of consumer credit under an open end credit plan obtained by an individual debtor on or within 70 days before the order for relief under this title, are presumed to be nondischargeable.
"Luxury goods or services" does not include goods or services reasonably necessary for the support or maintenance of the debtor or a dependent of the debtor according to 11 U.S.C. 523(a)(2)(C)(i)(II).
So, Dom ran up more than $500 in charges within 90 days before his bankruptcy was filed, and these charges do not appear to be for the support or maintenance of him or a dependent, but were clearly luxury expenditures, so the presumption is that these debts are non-dischargeable. If the creditor files an objection to discharge or adversary proceeding challenging the dischargeability of the charges, Dom will likely be unable to overcome the presumption and will have to pay the creditor back. If the creditor fails to timely file an objection or ad pro before Dom's discharge is granted, the debt is discharged and the creditor blew their chance to get paid.
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