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Hi. Can you get me som picture of the tree? (and perhaps also of a broken branche) How old is it? How is the foilage and was it pruned by a company at one point (perhaps before you got the house).
Great, take the time you need.
The main trunk look fine and the foilage seem ok (with a few normal defoliated terminal branches for a tree of that size).
The 1801 picture show what seem to be white rot on one of the branch. I can't say exactly what fungus from the distance but it seem to be destroying the lignin as what is visible seem pale. It does not seem to invade the main trunk meaning the encapsulation may currently taking place well and that big branche will eventually break. Climbing there would be required to really assess the damage. The under of the branch seem less affected because being on compression the wood is more dense, but it's just a question of time. Infection may have entered at one of the pruning cut or from climbing shoes spikes.I seem to see a steel wire in the tree (may be something else), those can also be infection cause.I assume most if not all falling branches come from that big one.
I would recommand to get that one cut and treat the knot with an anti fungus product until you notice the bark start to grow over the wound.
As for the lichen, one the branch on the soil, this is not a problem for the tree.
You have good eyes also :) i made an error with the term, what i was wanting to say is Compartmentalization (essentially meaning the same thing but i did not used the proper term):https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compartmentalization_of_decay_in_trees
That process is never perfect and just prolong the heath of the tree but will never allow a tree to live as long as a tree without any prior infection.
On the wires. I don't advise those close to houses because the branches no longer know they are weak so they grow over their natural boundary and the tree will come again in the same situation as when it was too large to start with. In nature, an isolated oak is very rare, they live in stand of trees that shade each others. That make them slender and with shorter span of branches. Most oak in a town become dangerous because of that, they have too much light So at one point, one must decide to cut the tree before it become a job requiring a crane and a bill over $2000. Not waiting too much also mean that the value of the lumber can cover part and sometime all cost while if one wait too much the timber will be hollow (and or contain metal wires).
If the wire is in one of the affected branche and need to be removed, weight reduction need to be made in the healty branche prior to the removal as it grew since then. A wire is not a bad idea to protect a roof but only to catch a branch, not to support (meaning the wire should not be in tension so that the branch can grow in diameter also and not just in lenght). If a branch is soon to break, it is better to make a weight reduction on the tree (keeping the whole tree balanced) than putting a wire in tension.