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Unfortunately, no. That's not one of the visas that you can use to re-enter the U.S. after you have filed an I-485. If you left the U.S. before the I-485 is approved, you would abandon the I-485 and would normally be stuck outside of the U.S. as they most likely would not let you back in on the E-2 since technically it is a non-immigrant intent visa that is not supposed to allow immigrant intent. They are a little more lenient on that one, but I wouldn't risk it.
Instead, when you file the I-485, file an I-131 Advance Parole with it and once that is approved (it takes about 3 or 4 months), then use that Advance Parole to travel. It MUST be approved before you leave.
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