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What is the trend concerning presidential power?
It fluctuates with the economy.
It has declined consistently
It is dependent upon the president's party controlling Congress.
It has steadily increased.
The courts have reduced it significantly in several case rulings.
A once-solid congressional norm that has just about vanished during the last few decades is
Question 3 When the Senate votes to invoke cloture, it
limits the amount of time that may be spent debating a bill.
means a bill must either pass or fail without any amendments.
sends a bill back to its originating committee for amendment.
forwards a bill to a conference committee so that differences between the House and Senate versions may be worked out.
will result in the bill's failure.
When Supreme Court justices compose their draft (preliminary) opinions, the main audience they are seeking to influence is
the other two branches of government.
other judges in future cases.
their colleagues on the Court.
lower court judges and attorneys.
Question 5 A president can be impeached by the _____ and tried and removed from office by the _____.
House and Senate; Supreme Court
Question 6 text Question 6 1 points Save
The main danger to a president who relies heavily on polls to make decisions is that he might
Question 6 answers
choose to disregard the results.
receive bad information from unscrupulous pollsters.
be afraid to defend unpopular views or to follow his own principles.
pay insufficient attention to interest groups.
be regarded as indecisive.
Applying the incumbency effect to the choices below, indicate the one person most likely to be guaranteed reelection.
a challenger with very large amounts of campaign donations.
an independent with a large and politically dedicated grassroots following.
a one-term House incumbent whose name has appeared frequently in local media for her efforts to improve an impoverished area of her district with the assistance of many local interest groups.
a long-time senior Senate incumbent who has been the subject of a probe into questionable campaign finance practices.
a one-term Senate incumbent whose vote to restrict environmental practices at a local factory was not popular with workers but who has also written and passed other legislation favorable to other industries in the area.
Private Spy magazine publishes a story claiming that Representative A has accepted bribes from foreign governments. Representative A sues the magazine for libel. To win a judgment, he must prove
that the magazine, with malicious intent, knowingly printed a false story.
only that the story was false.
only that the story brings the government into disrepute.
only that the magazine knowingly printed a false story.
that the magazine did not verify information from its outside source.
Thomas Jefferson, in a very characteristic legislative negotiation, got James Madison to vote for a debt plan he didn't want in exchange for
Question 9 answers
giving southern states more federal dollars.
letting southern congresssmen claim more representation, giving southern states more representatives.
allowing the Great Compromise to pass.
allowing southern state governments more reduction in debt.
locating the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.
President Clinton's legislative strategy early in his first term was
to try to shape public opinion and use it to sway Congress.
to govern based on the latest opinion polls.
to deal directly and secretly with Congress.
to passively wait for congressional action.
to initiate a bold legislative agenda and coerce members of Congress into approving it.
Which of the following is an example of a delegated power?
The War Powers Resolution of 1973
President Nixon's imposition of wage and price controls
President Lincoln's expansion of the military during the Civil War
A televised presidential address in which the president asks the American people to urge their member of Congress to pass a bill
A power the President holds in reserve
President Nixon's imposition of wage and price controls was an example of
the constitutional provision that the president "shall regulate the economy."
an inherent power.
the commander-in-chief powers.
a congressional delegation of power to the president.
A president's personality characteristics
once were a more important influence on behavior and performance than they are now.
are overshadowed by constitutional prescriptions.
have an important influence on the president's success or failure in office.
have little or no effect on a president's conduct once in office.
will immediately mean success or failure in gaining congressional support.
According to Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 78, the power of judicial review
reflects the will of the people as it is embodied in the Constitution.
violates the principle of checks and balances.
is inconsistent with the Constitution.
is inherently antidemocratic.
implies an ability of the court to usurp the power of other branches.
The original draft of the Constitution did not include a bill of rights because
the people's rights are spelled out elsewhere in the Constitution.
the framers believed that the Declaration of Independence adequately identified the people's basic rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
the framers believed that a bill of rights was not necessary because the Constitution spelled out the extent of the national government's power.
all of these.
none of these.
The most powerful leader in the House of Representatives is the
president pro tempore.
vice president of the United States.
Speaker of the House.
Clerk of the House.
The good faith exception allows
the state to introduce evidence at trial if that evidence was seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant.
the state to exempt a person from punishment for a crime if that person did not understand that their action was criminal.
individuals to publish any material they wish, as long as they believe that material to be factually correct.
people to be excused from jury duty if they can demonstrate that they have given their best effort in performing other civic duties.
a mistake in securing evidence to be considered neutrally by a jury.
The reason most people are not chosen as judicial nominees is because of their
judicial voting record.
conduct while an attorney.
answers on the judicial questionnaire.
Which of the following is not a reason for the growth of government?
Ambitious officials seeking new programs and services
The increasing complexity of society
The decreasing need for governmental regulation of social relationships
Public acceptance of a government role in providing social welfare
pubic demand for increased public services
In _____, the Supreme Court held that "fighting words" do not convey ideas and thus are not subject to First Amendment protection.
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)
Miller v. California (1973)
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Schenck v. U.S. (1919)
A vote on a bill in the Senate results in a 50 to 50 tie. What would likely be the official outcome of the vote on the bill?
It will have to be withdrawn and submitted at a later time when one additional vote can be secured.
It is killed.
The president's party will prevail.
The parties will reach a compromise in the conference committee.
The leadership will canvas members to change the one vote needed for passage.
Which of the following is considered a model of effective crisis management?
Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis
Reagan and the TWA hijacking
Reagan and the Grenada invasion
Carter and the Iranian hostage crisis
Bush and the Iraqi War.
A congressional representative who steadfastly clings to his or her position, refusing to yield or negotiate, would
be admired by colleagues for his or her consistency.
be typical of contemporary legislators.
probably be selected for a leadership role.
be violating the congressional norm of bargaining.
find it difficult to get his or her legislation passed.
The large American bureaucracy is most conducive to a system of _____ democracy.
The most powerful person in the Senate is the
The rules that govern floor debate in the House of Representatives
must be agreed upon by all the members.
are a tool the majority party uses to help it control the legislative process.
are neutral and assure a fair hearing for all sides.
encourage the development of partisan hostilities.
often result in deadlocked legislation the leadership must negotiate.
Which of the following influences a president the most?
The White House Staff
The National Security Council
U.S. Supreme Court rulings
A speech encouraging people to actively harass people entering abortion clinics and detain those people, if possible, would violate the standard established in
Smith v. City of Chicago.
Balke v. California.
Near v. Minnesota.
Brandenburg v. Ohio.
Schenk v. U.S.
How much of the Bill of Rights has been absorbed under the Fourteenth Amendment and made binding on the states?
Almost all of the provisions
Only the provisions of the First Amendment
Only criminal proceedings provisions
All of the provisions
none of the provisions
When the majority in Congress is of the same party as the president,
Congress still retains its power to debate, shape, pass, or defeat legislation proposed by the president.
the president chooses the majority party's congressional leadership.
the president chooses the major committee chairpersons.
interest groups are less active in congressional politics.
the president controls all votes on legislation or members lose committee assignments.
Question 31 text
Excluding formally stated missions and operating rules, what most effects an agency's behavior?
The bureaucratic culture of an agency
Whether its employees are patronage or civil service employees
Its appointed head
Which of the following best describes government corporations?
Businesses that have gone bankrupt and have been taken over by the government
Agencies that privately see to the personal needs of high-level bureaucrats
Business enterprises that the government has seized because of failure to pay taxes
Government agencies that provide services that could be provided by the private sector
Government partnerships with private industry
To the extent that independent agencies (such as the Environmental Protection Agency) are under anyone's control, they are under the control of
the department responsible for their area of activity.
a joint committee of Congress.
the cabinet member to whom they report.
federal regulators who oversee their actions.
The police arrest a criminal suspect, keep him in a locked room, tell him he is legally obligated to answer their questions, and claim he has no right to see an attorney until he has confessed. If this case goes to court, the confession
is admissible as evidence, because no physical force was used to obtain it.
is admissible as evidence, because the defendant is expected to know his rights regardless of what the police say.
cannot be used, because only physical evidence is of use in court.
cannot be used, because the defendant was not told of his right to an attorney and his right to remain silent.
can be used only to demonstrate the suspect lied.
When designing the presidency, delegates to the Constitutional Convention were torn between
concern for equality and concern for freedom.
a hereditary and an elected executive.
commitment to democracy and fear of the people.
checks and balances and divided government.
fear of a powerful presidency and a desire for strong leadership for the new government.
In the short term, the Gulf War had the domestic political impact of _____ President Bush's popularity.
having no effect on
The phrase divided government refers to
the Democrats and Republicans agreeing on a coalition government.
the separation of powers among the three branches.
specialization in Congress based on committees.
different parties controlling the presidency and Congress.
Congress and the President being opposed by the Supreme Court.
In reaching their decisions, state supreme courts can rely on the
U.S. Constitution and the constitution of their state.
state constitution only.
legal guidance given by their state legislature.
U.S. Constitution only.
U.S. Supreme Court opinions.
Under what conditions is organized prayer permitted in public schools during school hours?
If a poll of parents indicates that no religious group is offended
If all religious groups are involved in choosing or writing the prayer
Under no condition
If the prayer does not mention God
If parents sign consent waivers
Most political appointees come from
the president's campaign staff.
business, universities, and government itself.
political party workers.
careers that allowed them to be involved with the new president in other endeavors.
The Supreme Court declared prayer in public schools unconstitutional in
Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940).
West Virginia State Board v. Barnette (1943).
Engel v. Vitale (1962).
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968).
Near v. Minnesota (1931).
To appeal means to
make a plea on national television.
take a case to a higher court.
submit a "friend of the court" brief.
argue a case before a judge or a court.
ask for a reduction in sentence imposed.
Since the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the Supreme Court has used judicial review to invalidate _____ provisions of federal law.
more than 2,000
more than 500
a few more than 150
A report that a major business or industry is in trouble is likely to be met by
industry demands to be allowed to handle the problem itself, with no government interference.
calls for government to assume full control and ownership of the industry.
calls for the government to step in to protect businesses and consumers who might be hurt by a failure.
calls for everyone involved to accept the discipline of the market.
an attitude of refusal for government to provide assistance.
States refused to adopt the Constitution because it
did not contain a Bill of Rights.
did not include voting rights for blacks.
did not include voting rights for women.
did not separate powers among branches of government.
included too much delegation of powers to the states.
An incumbent advantage permitting members of Congress to keep in touch with constituents by sending mailings at taxpayer expense is known as
the franking privilege.
If a local paper is prevented by the city council from publishing a damaging article about one of the council members until the council can conduct its own investigation, this practice would be known as
The birth deformities produced by the drug Thalidomide in the 1960s
were a direct result of deregulation of the drug industry in the United States.
illustrate the potential danger of relaxing the FDA drug-licensing procedures.
were the result of drug interactions, which the FDA cannot control.
were the result of human error in interpreting standard laboratory tests.
demonstrate the willingness of an agency to please those affected by its rules.
House incumbents may be considered vulnerable if they
won their last election by a slim margin.
have been involved in a major scandal.
have a political ideology inconsistent with that of their district.
have done all of these.
have done none of these.
Every two years, _____ of the Senate must stand for re-election.
The U.S. Congress is criticized for being too
closed to interest group input.
majoritarian and therefore insensitive to the needs of special interests.
pluralistic at the expense of the national interest.
quick to pass important pieces of legislation.
fragmented by special interests.
Most democracies outside the United States have a(n)
legislative oversight system.
Who presides at the conference?
The Solicitor General
The Attorney General
The Chief Justice
The senior justice in the majority
The administrative law clerk
The history of free speech in the United States shows that
the right of free speech has been inviolate since the Constitution was adopted.
speech rights are far more limited today than they were in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
no institution of government has ever taken this right seriously.
the principle is honored, but individuals may be prosecuted for speech that is very likely to have certain types of effects.
the Supreme Court is more and more likely to restrict speech.
According to the Supreme Court in Bowers v. Hardwick, homosexual relations between consenting adults in the privacy of their own home
are protected under the Bill of Rights.
are not protected under the Bill of Rights.
cannot be regulated by state governments.
may be regulated only by Congress.
is a prohibited extension of search and seizure laws.
Although judges are constrained by statutes and precedents in making their decisions, some judges interpret the law in light of
their personal beliefs.
their direct party ties.
what they read in the newspaper.
their childhood experiences.
In Shaw v. Reno (1993), the Supreme Court ruled that the districts in the case in question were an example of
"separate but unequal."
"separate and equal."
"taking all necessary actions to further racial equality."
Whereas civil rights may be defined as what the government must provide its citizens, civil liberties may be defined as what the government
must do to its citizens.
cannot deny its citizens.
can do to its citizens.
may do to its citizens if it so chooses.
can take away from its citizens.
A congressional committee that holds a hearing to determine whether the Department of Agriculture is administering the food stamp program as Congress intended is engaging in
Cases in the U.S. courts of appeals are usually heard by
panels of two judges.
panels of three judges.
a single judge.
panels of nine judges.
a bench of 30 judges.
The thousands of cases that come to the Supreme Court for review are initially screened and analyzed by
the solicitor general.
the chief justice.
each justice individually.
the Administrative Court.
The president can veto any legislation enacted by Congress except
bills that address an issue in the Bill of Rights.
bills that address foreign policy issues.
joint resolutions that propose constitutional amendments.
declarations of war.
executive branch budget bills.
The legal powers of bureaucratic agencies derive from
a congressional grant of authority.
a constitutional mandate.
delegation from the president.
According to the Constitution, the minimum age requirement for presidential candidates is the age of
What overall effect has the growth in staff and the number of committees had on the two legislative bodies?
Resulted in increased efficiency.
Increased communication with members in the districts.
Increased oversight abilities of executive branch agencies.
Decreased the power of both bodies due to internal power struggles.
Served to deadlock many crucial decisions.
In the congressional setting, casework refers to
members being honest with their constituents.
challengers demanding honesty of incumbents.
members helping constituents with problems.
members' right to send mail free of charge.
Given the distribution of public opinion in the United States, a proponent of majoritarian democracy might argue that
state governments may provide support to particular religions.
government should provide no support whatsoever to any religion.
government should provide support to Protestant religions only.
government's protection of religious minorities is a justified safeguard.
government can provide support to religion as long as it favors no particular religion.
Plea bargaining is a process by which
a defendant makes an emotional plea for mercy from the court.
a defendant pleads guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
jurors bargain among themselves to reach a verdict.
civil cases involving large sums of money are settled out of court.
the prosecuting attorney waives the jury process.
In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court struck down state abortion laws on the grounds that
the government is never permitted to regulate morality.
only the federal government has the right to regulate reproductive decisions.
the unborn possess the same rights as any citizen.
childbearing decisions are protected from government interference by the right to privacy protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
criminal justice protections extended to the unborn.
_____ is the justices' most important legal function.
Administering the appellate court system
Upholding constitutional challenges
Until 1913, U.S. senators were selected by
the electoral college.
the House of Representatives.
The rational-comprehensive model of policymaking is unrealistic because
it is difficult for policymakers to define precise values and goals.
the policy selected cannot always be the most effective means to the goal.
comprehensive investigations to all solutions to any specific problem would be too time consuming.
all of these are true.
none of these are true.
Which of the following members of Congress is most likely to be re-elected?
Representative A, who spends virtually all of her time in Washington but has a staff in her district that handles casework
Representative B, who devotes most of her and her staff's time to initiating and passing legislation
Representative C, who spends a lot of her time in Washington raising money from PACs and working on foreign policy matters
Representative D, who is not considered an influential or active member of Congress but is very visible in her district and has an efficient casework staff
Representative E, who is very loyal to the political party as is his staff.
Popular election of judges
occurs at all levels of American courts.
occurs in many states but nowhere in the federal system.
occurs only in federal courts.
has been suggested as a reform but is not currently used.
is declining in use.
The White House is willing to work with interest groups because they are
able to mobilize their constituents to contact members of Congress.
a resource Congress tends to ignore.
able to access financial resources that could be helpful to the president.
too powerful to be ignored.
In Agostini v. Felton (1997), the Court
emphasized that the First Amendment requires neutrality toward religion.
determined that under no circumstances can parochial schools hire public school teachers at taxpayer expense.
ruled that Christmas displays celebrate a national holiday and do not advance religion.
argued that any governmental involvement in religion is unconstitutional.
struck down "In God We Trust" as a national slogan.
If the president neither signs nor vetoes a bill within 10 days while Congress is in session, the bill
will be sent back to Congress.
will be recalled by Congress for further action.
has been pocket-vetoed.
A practical way to give the president greater control over the bureaucracy would be to
return to the patronage system.
insist on higher qualifications for top managers.
expand the number of presidential appointees.
offer better pay for appointed positions.
give him more budget control.
The presidential strategy of leading by courting public opinion
can be defended as a means of furthering majoritarian democracy.
was pioneered by the early presidents.
has declined in significance in recent years.
is considered by most to be an ineffective political strategy.
usually leads to ineffective leadership.
The powers of the president as outlined in the Constitution are
briefly stated and comparatively vague.
extensively and specifically described.
more elaborately described than are those of Congress.
specific enough to avoid disagreement over their extent.
very similar to a parliamentary executive.
When making contributions to candidates for Congress, PACs tend to show a preference for
candidates who are challenging incumbents.
The major criticism of the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade was that the
justices were writing their own policy preferences into law.
Constitution clearly bans abortion.
Court did not hear sufficient testimony before reaching its decision.
case should have been dismissed as moot.
law as applied was too narrow to fit any other precedent.
Which of the following voting behaviors by a representative indicates delegate behavior?
Agreeing to vote with the representative's party on an issue.
Agreeing to vote with the president on a bill if the president campaigns for that representative at reelection time.
Voting the way a representative thinks best and against a large number of constituents because the representative knows whichever way the vote is cast, a large number of constituents will be offended.
Trading votes on an issue of low importance with another member to gain a voting favor on a later bill.
Voting the way the results of a telephone survey of district constituents indicated they preferred.
The national parties continue to be strong forces in the legislative process because:
they control the nomination of House and Senate candidates.
they provide most of the funding for House and Senate campaigns.
they determine who will get prime office space in the Capitol buildings.
party leaders can help rank-and-file members to get on preferred committees and to climb up the leadership ladder.
they often write and initiate proposed legislation.
When an interest group feels threatened by a government action, a likely response by government would be to
outlaw campaign contributions from that interest group.
pass further legislation restricting interest group access to government bureaucrats.
preserve or expand agencies that serve the interest group.
defend its actions in court.
Which court was created by name in the Constitution?
The U.S. District Court
The U.S. Supreme Court
The Federal Court of Claims
The U.S. Criminal Court
The U.S. Jurisdictional Court
The largest organizational unit in the executive branch is the
A _____ is a temporary committee established to deal with issues that either overlap or fall outside the areas of expertise of standing committees.
Most employees of the national government are employed
by independent regulatory commissions.
in patronage positions.
outside Washington, D.C.
inside Washington, D.C.
in support of congress and the Cabinet.
Meetings in which legislation is debated and amended are called _____sessions.
ex nihilo nihil fit
The influence of a president, according to Richard Neustadt, depends upon
the condition of the economy.
the professional reputation and prestige of the officeholder.
the management structure adopted by the presidential incumbent.
early legislative success with Congress.
public perception of the incumbent's ethics.
If the chief justice is not in the majority when a case is decided, the responsibility for opinion assignment rests with the
most junior justice on the Court.
most senior associate justice in the majority.
chief justice, as in other cases.
most senior associate justice in the minority.
justice assigned by the Chief Justice.
Why does the cabinet not serve as an effective advisory body?
The cabinet is quite large and unwieldy.
Cabinet members have limited areas of expertise and cannot contribute much to deliberations on policy outside their own area.
Cabinet members may not be easy for the president to work with.
All of these are correct answers.
None of the above are correct answers.
Majoritarian decision making would reduce the size of the national bureaucracy; pluralist decision making
tends to increase it.
seeks to reduce it.
tends to reduce it.
ignores the issue.
makes more rational decision making occur before action is taken.
An underlying assumption of the concept of descriptive representation seems to be that
elected representatives should follow their own conscience.
any citizen can be represented by any congressional representative.
minorities can be effectively represented only by people of their own kind.
representatives should carefully heed public opinion polls.
the more people indicate what type of representative they want, the closer the representative is to voter preference.
In order to determine whether a movie fits the legal standard for obscenity, the work will be
scrutinized against federal standards only.
subjected to differing local standards.
determined to violate obscenity standards if only part of the work is somewhat obscene.
removed from public availability during its review.
kept in public circulation if the entire work is judged to be obscene if part of a press piece.
The American public generally
holds Congress as an institution in higher regard than it holds individual members of Congress.
holds individual members of Congress in higher regard than it holds Congress as an institution.
holds Congress in higher regard than it holds the president.
holds neither Congress nor its members in high regard.
holds the Supreme Court and Congress in equally-high regard.
All of the following have had input into presidents' choices of federal judicial nominees except
the House Judiciary Committee.
U.S. senators from the state in which the judge will serve.
the American Bar Association.
the Department of Justice.
Government corporations are most likely to be created when a service is for the public good and
the government can make a profit from engaging in it.
healthy competition exists between government and the private sector.
there is danger of corporate monopoly if the government fails to act.
large numbers of government employees are already trained in the service.
private industry cannot profitably provide the service.
The Supreme Court has consistently
supported the right to have time set aside for prayer in public schools.
avoided making decisions concerning prayer in public schools.
permitted prayer in public schools as long as it is nondenominational.
upheld the right to practice a moment of silence.
equated prayer in public schools with government support of religion.
Who was the leader of the Federalists?
Question 1 answers
Question 2 text Question 2
Which of the following best describes James Madison's conclusion about factions?
Question 2 answers
They are the true guardians of the democratic process.
In a truly democratic society, they would never arise.
They are an inevitable result of liberty and human nature.
They can be effectively suppressed without compromising liberty.
If ignored, factions would quietly control most government functions.
Question 3 text Question 3
The effect of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment, which enfranchised eighteen- to twenty-year-olds, was to
Question 3 answers
boost turnout in the United States above voter turnout rates in most other democratic nations.
reduce national voter turnout.
increase national voter turnout.
decrease the percentage of the population that distrusts the American political system.
counter the increasing social mobility of this group.
Question 4 text Question 4
Americans who are most likely to join interest groups are
Question 4 answers
young and economically disadvantaged.
wealthy and well educated.
middle-class blue-collar workers.
people who have experienced a lack of government support for their particular problem.
Question 5 text Question 5
The term applied when, soon after one election ends, candidates begin silently lining up their support for the next race is a(n)
Question 5 answers
Question 6 text Question 6
What was unusual about the presidential election of 1796?
Question 6 answers
The candidates received the same number of votes due to a flaw in the election.
Candidates had no political party affiliations.
Jefferson, the Vice Presidential candidate, and Adams, the Presidential candidate, represented different parties.
Jefferson and Adams ran on the same ticket.
Adams indicated to his party that the party's selection of Jefferson as Vice President was not acceptable to him.
Question 7 text Question 7
The musicians Peter Gabriel, U2, and Tupac Shakur and the film Wag the Dog are all examples of
Question 7 answers
popular culture that has been censored by government action.
government-sponsored artists and projects.
the blending of entertainment with political content.
the rejection of politics in favor of pure entertainment.
political pop culture.
Question 8 text Question 8
The Internet was a critical force in breaking which of the following news stories?
Question 8 answers
The 2000 election story
The Clinton-Lewinsky scandal
The events at Tiananmen Square
the War in Iraq.
Question 9 text Question 9
Most politicians and many scholars believe that the media's greatest influence on politics is in its ability to
Question 9 answers
report the news.
set the political agenda.
ruin political careers.
Question 10 text Question 10
In presidential elections since the end of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's terms, Democrats have
Question 10 answers
captured the presidency more often than Republicans.
split control of Congress fairly evenly.
been limited to just one victory.
generally been able to keep the Republicans from mounting credible candidates.
won the presidency less often than Republicans.
Question 11 text Question 11
Direct action includes
Question 11 answers
a contribution to a campaign.
legislatures passing laws in response to public demands.
increased voter turnout due to negative campaigning.
a citizen's group appearing before the city council seeking change in an ordinance.
an interest group soliciting members.
Question 12 text Question 12
According to a 1997 survey, a majority of Americans favored censoring the media to promote
Question 12 answers
Question 13 text Question 13
Which of the following best describes the structure of the two major American political parties?
Question 13 answers
They are centrally controlled hierarchical organizations.
They are alliances of national, state, and local organizations that are often divided into ideological factions.
They are alliances of national, state, and local organizations unified by agreement on ideology and policy.
They are without organization or structure.
Their major power lies in the ability to raise contributions.
Question 14 text Question 14
Under current federal law, the amount the PAC you belong to can donate to the candidate running for the U.S. Senate you favor is
Question 14 answers
unlimited since you are a member of that PAC.
$2,000 a month during the election cycle.
$5,000 per election.
$27,500 per year.
equal to a percentage of the group's membership.
Question 15 text Question 15
Petitioning a local government council to rebuild a curb in front of your home is a(n)
Question 15 answers
form of unconventional participation.
form of supportive behavior.
example of seeking particular benefits.
example of seeking broad policy objectives.
method of self-interest political behavior.
Question 16 text Question 16
Since the 1980s, organized labor's share of the workforce has
Question 16 answers
remained about the same.
improved to levels of two decades ago.
Question 17 text Question 17
President Clinton's 1998 State of the Union address, which took place right after the Lewinsky scandal broke,
Question 17 answers
helped Clinton change public opinion about his ability to continue carrying out his duties.
showed the limits of TV's influence on public opinion.
was generally ignored by viewers and commentators.
demonstrated that allegations of sexual misconduct were distracting the Clinton administration from its duties.
completely avoided mention of the scandal
Question 18 text Question 18
Interest groups maintain interest in their group and activities most successfully by using a(n)
Question 18 answers
frequent organizational meetings schedule.
membership benefits incentive.
Question 19 text Question 19
You wish to donate a large sum to the presidential candidate of your choice but find that federal law limits you to _____ per election.
Question 19 answers
as much as you can afford
Question 20 text Question 20
Since the 1950s, the level of party voting has
Question 20 answers
varied with funds raised.
Question 21 text Question 21
The Whig Party was formed to oppose the
Question 21 answers
Question 22 text Question 22
The federalist and antifederalist factions that arose during the debate over ratification of the U.S. Constitution were not political parties because they
Question 22 answers
were not very well organized.
took clearly different positions on important issues of the day.
did not at that point sponsor candidates for election.
did not have a clearly identifiable group of supporters.
did not have established party platforms.
Question 23 text Question 23
Private ownership of the media in the United States makes the American news industry
Question 23 answers
dependent on government subsidies.
dependent on advertising revenues.
less free to cover stories that are of interest to the audience.
less concerned about ratings than are media in other countries.
a product of popular trends.
Question 24 text Question 24
Most interest groups in Washington D.C. are affiliated with a(n)
Question 24 answers
religious or ethnic organization.
public interest and consumer group.
corporation and business trade association.
economic and environmental issue.
Question 25 text Question 25
After Sept. 11th, interest groups began to lobby
Question 25 answers
as a unified effort to prevent more terrorist attacks.
Congress to make sure that appropriated money wasn't re-appropriated into other security projects.
the President to restrict all non-security-related interest groups from getting further appropriations.
out of greed because they knew government spending would increase.
by simply asking for money for the same projects as before Sept. 11th, just under a different "homeland security" purpose.
Question 26 text Question 26
How does incumbency affect a candidate's chance for re-election?
Question 26 answers
Incumbents have a record to criticize and are therefore at a disadvantage in elections.
Incumbency is an advantage in running for Congress but a disadvantage in running for other offices.
Incumbency has no effect on the outcome of elections.
The incumbent candidate almost always has an advantage.
The amount of fundraising by an incumbent declines once a voting record is established.
Question 27 text Question 27
The reasonable access rule required
Question 27 answers
broadcasters to make facilities available to all responsible parties in a community who want to express conflicting views on issues.
the press to refrain from publishing strategic information during wartime.
broadcast stations to provide fair coverage of all views on public issues.
broadcast stations to provide free air time to all candidates running for public office.
all Internet providers to use similar equipment capabilities.
Question 28 text Question 28
A distrust of special interest groups and government institutions with a belief that mankind is generally trustworthy describes what type of political reformer?
Question 28 answers
State's rights advocate
Question 29 text Question 29
A basic assumption of most campaign managers and of the media that cover the candidates is that
Question 29 answers
the American people have a keen interest in politics and a thirst for detail.
the voter will not tolerate position changes on key issues.
voters will quickly spot and dismiss a shallow or misleading campaign theme.
the spoken and written word is a communication tool more powerful than visual images.
the American people have a low interest in politics and a short attention span.
Question 30 text Question 30
An election trend where voters select the candidates from the political party they are not known to normally vote for and persist in the behavior for several elections would be identified as
Question 30 answers
a progressive election.
a split election.
a semi-mobile electorate.
Question 31 text Question 31
The interests of the poor and of social welfare recipients are defended by
Question 31 answers
groups organized from among these people.
public interest lobbying groups funded by philanthropic organizations and wealthy individuals.
Question 32 text Question 32
Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance is an example of_____behavior.
Question 32 answers
Question 33 text Question 33
A story that contains no policy content which is not related to the day's events but which commonly discusses popular personalities and is designed to draw greater viewer interest is
Question 33 answers
the Fox effect.
attentive policy elitism.
biased media coverage.
Question 34 text Question 34
Which category best applies to the Socialist Party?
Question 34 answers
Party of ideological protest.
Question 35 text Question 35
If you were the administrator of a corporate PAC, you would be most likely to contribute campaign funds to
Question 35 answers
a candidate who is strongly committed to a free-market economy and is challenging an incumbent who chairs a congressional committee important to your business.
a candidate from the state in which your corporation is located.
the challenger of an open seat.
any candidate, whether challenger or incumbent, as long as he or she shares your ideology.
an incumbent who is a member of a committee considering legislation of interest to your corporation.
Question 36 text Question 36
Campaigns use polls to
Question 36 answers
get feedback about the success or failure of various campaign tactics.
discover voters' perceptions of candidates
devise adjusted strategies.
discover voter's opinions about certain issues.
do all of these.
Question 37 text Question 37
A group which has as its purpose issues unrelated to its members' vocations is a(n)
Question 37 answers
public interest group.
Question 38 text Question 38
_____ occurs when a magazine informs a relatively small number of group leaders who follow news in a specific area, and those leaders in turn mobilize their followers to put pressure on public officials.
Question 38 answers
The two-step flow of communication
Elite dominance of American politics
Question 39 text Question 39
An individual's evaluation of the merits of interest groups may depend on
Question 39 answers
whether or not he or she wishes to pursue a particular policy goal.
his or her involvement in local politics.
his or her commitment to lowering taxes.
his or her commitment to freedom or to equality.
his or her personal biases of what the group offers them.
Question 40 text Question 40
By itself, the consumer protection group "Common Cause" has been unsuccessful in changing product warning requirements on a toy they believe to be unsafe for small children. When a couple of other groups related to child endangerment education and children's health assist Common Cause in gaining increased media attention to resolve the problem, the successful resolution of this issue is termed
Question 40 answers
a cooperative partnership.
Question 41 text Question 41
By national law _____ of the seats in the House of Representatives and _____ of the seats in the Senate are filled in a general election held every even-numbered year.
Question 41 answers
Question 42 text Question 42
When the air you breathe is made cleaner as a result of lobbying done by an interest group to which you do not belong, you are an example of
Question 42 answers
a program monitor.
an interest group entrepreneur.
the PAC problem.
a free rider.
Question 43 text Question 43
One feature of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was its
Question 43 answers
attempts to tighten national control over media ownership and product content.
efforts to deregulate all privately-owned media.
encouragement of restrictions on web pages.
relaxation of rules on media ownership.
increase in government-owned media outlets.
Question 44 text Question 44
The equal opportunities rule did not allow which of the following?
Question 44 answers
A TV station accepting advertising only from the owner's favorite candidates
A newspaper accepting advertising only from the owner's favorite candidates
A TV station covering a political story and presenting only one side of the issue
A large corporation owning more than twelve television stations
all of these.
Question 45 text Question 45
Ralph Nader's Green Party candidacy in the 2000 presidential election may have had all of the following effects except
Question 45 answers
causing George W. Bush to win the presidency.
electing a president that was less environmentally friendly.
causing Al Gore to win the popular vote.
causing Al Gore to lose the electoral votes of several states.
causing George W. Bush to win the electoral college by one vote.
Question 46 text Question 46
The critical election of 1932 resulted in the
Question 46 answers
decline of the Solid South.
end of the Progressive movement.
election of Herbert Hoover.
achievement of majority status for the Democratic Party.
birth of the modern-day Republican party.
Question 47 text Question 47
During a presidential election, the tendency of journalists to limit coverage of campaign events to coverage of whichever candidate leads in the polls at the time is known as
Question 47 answers
Question 48 text Question 48
Interest groups are formed by
Question 48 answers
business and trade associations.
citizens with a public interest.
none of these.
Question 49 text Question 49
Groups using legal advocacy seek to influence policy through
Question 49 answers
bringing selected cases to court.
pleading their case to individual congressional representatives.
testifying before Congress.
providing legal representation to members.
Question 50 text Question 50
Unconventional political activities are most likely to be used by
Question 50 answers
electoral majorities seeking to increase their support.
groups seeking to overthrow the American political system.
wealthy and established interest groups.
highly educated voters.
groups that have been denied access to the normal channels of influence.
Question 51 text Question 51
A good example of a party of ideological protest is the
Question 51 answers
Free Soil Party.
Question 52 text Question 52
In Federalist No. 10, James Madison advocated
Question 52 answers
regulating factions' activities by passing strict laws limiting them.
making factionalism a criminal offense.
replacing factions with political parties.
a system that would inherently control the effects of factions.
increased power and control for factional alliances.
Question 53 text Question 53
The difference between a primary and a caucus is that caucuses
Question 53 answers
receive a higher percentage of participation from voters.
cause more split-ticket voting.
are open to elected officials only.
are advisory only and are not binding on the delegates.
allow voters to debate and exchange views before casting their ballots.
Question 54 text Question 54
A state's allocation of votes in the electoral college
Question 54 answers
is recalculated every ten years, after a census.
changes every presidential election.
was set by the Constitution and never changes.
is based on the geographic size of the state.
changes every ten years based on political party preference.
Question 55 text Question 55
Having a federal, rather than a national, election means that
Question 55 answers
people in different states get to choose between different presidential candidates.
only the votes of U.S. taxpayers count.
the electoral vote system gives weight to state results and not simply to the popular vote.
faithless electors have undue power.
the popular vote determines the eventual outcome.
Question 56 text Question 56
Which of the following involves an interest group's rank-and-file membership as well as outreach to ordinary people outside the organization?
Question 56 answers
Question 57 text Question 57
At the time of the 2000 election, close to _____ PACs were registered with the Federal Election Commission.
Question 57 answers
Question 58 text Question 58
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
Question 58 answers
The mass media are not important to the majoritarian model of democracy.
The mass media are not important to the pluralist model of democracy.
The media in the United States have greatly enhanced the government's efforts to maintain order.
The media in the United States have played an important role in advancing equality.
The media represents an unofficial branch of government.
Question 59 text Question 59
Spray painting political slogans on a building, a form of unconventional behavior, has what effect upon government?
Question 59 answers
It's determined to be harmful only because it leads to prison overcrowding.
It's largely ineffective.
It's viewed as destructive behavior that leads to more progressive crimes in young adults.
Question 60 text Question 60
Which of the following statements about minor parties in America is false?
Question 60 answers
They act as a safety valve for discontented groups.
They are often a powerful minority in Congress.
Some of their planks have been adopted by major parties.
Some have evolved into major parties.
They often contribute issue ideas to major parties.
Question 61 text Question 61
Which of the following has been an effect of public financing of presidential campaigns?
Question 61 answers
It has limited campaign spending.
It has equalized the amounts spent by major party candidates.
It has strengthened the trend toward personalized campaigns.
It has lessened control of political parties over the process.
All of these are true.
Question 62 text Question 62
Early regulation of broadcast media in the United States resulted from
Question 62 answers
print media owners seeking to limit the competition they would have to face.
radio station owners seeking to impose order on the use of the airwaves.
the efforts of executive branch bureaucrats to increase their power.
congressional efforts to control monopolistic economic activities.
corruption in media ownership.
Question 63 text Question 63
After being a victim of a violent crime, the victim sees a need for a victim's rights group to oppose lax judicial sentences for offenders. This group does not currently exist and the victim establishes such a group using the victim's own time, money, knowledge and networking skills. This victim has become a
Question 63 answers
interest group entrepreneur.
Question 64 text Question 64
Which amendment provided for election of the President and Vice President on the same ticket?
Question 64 answers
Question 65 text Question 65
Which of the following defines or describes "contacting behavior" and other forms of particularized participation?
Question 65 answers
It tends to be used by those with the most political knowledge and resources.
It is consistent with democratic theory.
It may sacrifice majority interests to private interests.
It is described by all of these.
It is described by none of these responses.
Question 66 text Question 66
How does education affect voter turnout?
Question 66 answers
Well-educated people are more likely to vote than are their less-educated counterparts.
Educated people are less likely to vote than uneducated people are because their education makes them more cynical about government.
Educated and uneducated people vote at about the same rates.
Educated people vote more than uneducated people, who are often unable to pass voter literacy tests.
Educated people cast more split ballots on issues.
Question 67 text Question 67
A local party organization which differed dramatically from the national party organization in positions on issues and which attempted to ignore national party efforts at controlling the local organization would probably be unsuccessful because of
Question 67 answers
the training of all party volunteers by the national party.
the legislative power of incumbents.
the nomination process.
money collected and distributed by national committees.
split-ticket voting patterns.
Question 68 text Question 68
Which of the following principles is not part of the responsible party government model?
Question 68 answers
The winning party should carry out its program once in office.
Parties should present clear and coherent programs to voters.
Voters should hold the governing party responsible at the next election for executing its program.
Legislators should be responsive to their constituencies, even if doing so means voting against their party's program.
Voters should choose candidates on the basis of party programs.
Question 69 text Question 69
The text defines _____ as the actions by which private citizens seek to influence or support government and politics.
Question 69 answers
Question 70 text Question 70
Which of the following is true of Democratic presidential primary candidates, when contrasted against a republican presidential primary candidate?
Question 70 answers
Democrats allow winning candidates to take all of the state's delegates.
Democrats but not Republicans permit front-loading of publicity and fundraising.
Democrats permit party voters to directly elect convention delegates.
Democrats permit candidates receiving 15 percent or more of the vote to proportionally divide delegates.
Republicans allow minor candidates to designate their votes towards a major candidate.
Question 71 text Question 71
The number of lawyers in Washington, D.C. is increasing, because
Question 71 answers
it is easier to pass the bar examination in Washington.
more people are suing because of government regulations.
most lawyers want to live and work in Washington, where the real political action takes place.
the government needs to hire many lawyers to defend itself against lawsuits brought by citizens' groups.
expanding interest group advocacy has created a demand for lawyer-lobbyists.
Question 72 text Question
If a country adopted a new constitution where the power of government is largely at the highest level and lower levels of government have no real, independent power of their own, that country's new constitution would agree with the position of which early political entity in the United States?
Question 72 answers
Question 73 text Question 73
Available evidence seems to indicate that there are _____ among journalists and reporters.
Question 73 answers
biases in favor of politicians
no biases at all
Question 74 text Question 74
The Federal Communications Commission justifies the regulation of broadcast media on the grounds that
Question 74 answers
there are a limited number of broadcast frequencies, and the government must allocate them.
government has sweeping powers to control media in the name of order.
broadcast media have a history of irresponsible reporting.
radio and television are not mentioned in the Bill of Rights.
over-saturation of a particular market might eliminate all media outlets.
Question 75 text Question 75
What was distinctive about the presidential election of 1828?
Question 75 answers
A third party candidate finished above a major party candidate.
One person won the electoral vote and the other the popular vote.
Electors were selected by state legislatures.
An electoral realignment appeared for the first time.
Relaxed voting requirements caused the first mass election in U.S. history.
Question 76 text Question 76
In the 1970s, Congress passed lobbying reforms that required
Question 76 answers
full disclosure of all PAC contributions to candidates for national office.
all conversations between lobbyists and legislators to be made public.
candidates to cease raising money from interest groups.
interest groups to work through the two political parties.
lobbyists to disclose government contracts.
Question 77 text Question 77
The case study on the development of the United Farm Workers union demonstrates
Question 77 answers
the importance of leadership in successfully organizing interest groups.
that the civil rights movement provided a model for the successful organization of migrant farm workers.
the importance of a well-financed effort.
neither a nor b.
both a and b.
Question 78 text Question 78
Which of the following people would vote most often?
Question 78 answers
A single white mother with two children and a high school education
A young married Hispanic couple, both employed full-time, with one child
A 30 year-old female lower-level executive with a two-year college degree
A college graduate who is currently unemployed
An African-American college graduate who has been a high-ranking company supervisor for 15 years
Question 79 text Question 79
The key to attracting new members to a group through direct mail solicitation is
Question 79 answers
to concentrate on a carefully targeted audience.
to undertake a massive mailing to every conceivable membership prospect.
to show potential members that both members and nonmembers will benefit if the group is successful.
not to play on the reader's emotions.
to provide a specific example of a personal benefit from joining.
Question 80 text Question 80
The electoral college
Question 80 answers
was created by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
allows candidates to pay little attention to the popular vote.
often elects a president who lost the popular vote.
is not mentioned in the Constitution.
is made up of electors typically chosen by popular vote.
Question 81 text Question 81
The first critical election took place in the contest between
Question 81 answers
Jefferson and Adams (1800).
Reagan and Carter (1980).
Hoover and Roosevelt (1932).
Jackson, Hamilton and T. Roosevelt (1824).
Lincoln, Breckinridge, Bell, and Douglas (1860).
Question 82 text Question 82
Despite increases in the overall level of education in the United States,
Question 82 answers
more unconventional participation is taking place today than at any point in history.
voter turnout has declined in the past few decades.
Americans know less about politics than ever.
none of these are true.
all of these are true.
Question 83 text Question 83
The vast increase in the number of business lobbies in Washington during the 1970s and 1980s was in large part a response to the
Question 83 answers
increasingly cynical view of government that developed among the American public in the 1960s and 1970s.
growing threat posed by New Right lobbyists.
favorable congressional legislation.
civil rights and anti-Vietnam War activism of the 1960s.
expanded scope of federal regulatory activities and the growing influence of the public interest movement.
Question 84 text Question 84
A study of presidential campaign coverage on television news has shown that instead of partisan bias in such coverage, there is actually bias against
Question 84 answers
candidates from wealthy families.
incumbents and front-runners.
Question 85 text Question 85
The process of enfranchising African-Americans had what impact on American federalism?
Question 85 answers
It allowed the states greater powers to promote equality.
It forced the states to band together to compel the national government to expand the franchise.
It demonstrated that state and national governments could cooperate in the public interest.
It made the national government, rather than the states, the guarantor of voting rights.
It lowered voter turnout substantially.
Question 86 text Question 86
In which of the following countries are citizens most likely to write to elected officials?
Question 86 answers
Question 87 text Question 87
An interest group attempting to get its message out by launching a World Wide Web site is engaged in
Question 87 answers
grassroots coalition building.
an information campaign.
Question 88 text Question 88
Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the Twenty-Sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age to eighteen, because they
Question 88 answers
recognized the justice of the student antiwar and civil rights movements.
knew that student voter turnout would be low.
expected the new voters to change the political balance of power drastically.
hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.
realized the unfairness of the military draft age with the voting age.
Question 89 text Question 89
Party machines—centralized party organizations at the local level that dominated politics by controlling local elections—declined because
Question 89 answers
they could not provide needed services to the urban community.
many of their activities were illegal.
they were never effective at controlling local elections.
they became increasingly corrupt and unable to deliver on promises.
government began to provide the social services that had been the basis of popular loyalty and support for the machines.
Question 90 text Question 90
A primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot is a(n) _____ primary.
Question 90 answers
Question 91 text Question 91
A vital resource of any interest group is
Question 91 answers
Question 92 text Question 92
The most important factor determining voter choice in an election, according to democratic theory, is
Question 92 answers
believability and reliability of the candidate.
amount of media coverage.
Question 93 text Question 93
In the individual states, the use of initiatives and referenda
Question 93 answers
was more prevalent before 1900.
has remained stable since the ratification of the Constitution.
has been increasing in recent years.
has been decreasing in recent years.
has overturned more law than court rulings.
Question 94 text Question 94
Which statement best characterizes the changes in campaigns since the 1960s?
Question 94 answers
Campaigns are shorter and more heavily influenced by the parties.
Campaigns are longer, fund raising is easier, and media scrutiny is less.
There have been no significant changes since the 1960s.
Campaigns are longer and more media focused, and fund raising is more complex.
campaigns are increasingly driven by political party insiders.
Question 95 text Question 95
A feature story that airs to a targeted listening audience by a media source that also corresponds to a specific advertiser of the network is an example of
Question 95 answers
Question 96 text Question 96
Which event helped to shape the partisan patterns of the North and South for nearly a century?
Question 96 answers
The Revolutionary War
The Great Depression
The Civil War
The civil rights movement
Adoption of the new Constitution.
Question 97 text Question 97
Which of the following is an advantage of a two-party system over a multiparty system?
Question 97 answers
Two-party systems facilitate the creation of new parties.
Two-party systems provide voters with a wider range of choices.
Two-party systems allow for more cooperation between the executive branch and the legislature.
Two-party systems force a variety of interest groups and factions to cooperate to win elections.
multiparty systems are known to cause weakened government institutions.
Question 98 text Question 98
Teddy Roosevelt's joining with the Progressive Party in 1912 could be considered an example of the formation of a
Question 98 answers
party of ideological protest.
Question 99 text Question 99
The current partisan makeup of the electorate is best described as a(n)
Question 99 answers
almost equal balance among Democrats, Republicans, and independents.
heavy preponderance of Democrats.
new Republican majority.
new independent majority.
Which of the following statements about American political parties is false?
Question 100 answers
A person's party identification, once developed, tends to endure.
The number of Democrats in the electorate consistently exceeded that of Republicans until the mid-1990s.
Independents outnumber the combination of Democratic and Republican party identifiers in the U.S. electorate.
The proportion of Democrats in the electorate has shrunk over time, to the benefit of both Republicans and independents.
50% of children adopt the same party affiliation as their parents.
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