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76. To what does the term internal validity refer?


a. the degree to which results of a study can be generalized from one sample to another


b. the process of subject selection


c. the development of a treatment


d. the degree to which the results of a study can be attributed to the manipulation of the


independent variable


77. Susan has twelve subjects drop out of her study. Which threat to internal validity must she


consider?


a. mortality


b. history


c. selection


d. randomization


78. Many researchers devise “sham” treatments for their control groups to undergo, meaning


that the control group interacts with researchers in some way that is not thought to impact


the dependent variable or the outcome. This is done to weaken the argument that the


treatment group improvement may have occurred in part simply due to the attention this


group received from the researchers. These researchers are attempting to control for


which of the following?


a. multiple treatment interference


b. the Hawthorne effect


c. selection


d. experimenter effects


79. Which experimental design involves one experimental group and three control groups?


a. Solomon four-group design


b. pretest posttest control group design


c. posttest only control group design


d. quasi-experimental design


80. Why use nonequivalent control group design?


a. less cost


b. less time involved


c. easier training


d. because you cannot assign subjects to groups


81. In what design is the cause-and-effect argument strongest?


a. experimental design


b. quasi-experimental design


c. pre-experimental design


d. correlational design


82. In quasi-experimental research, when will the cause of differences between groups occur?


a. during the experiment


b. after the experiment


c. it has already occurred


d. it will never occur


83. Compared to longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies ______________.


a. are much less expensive


b. have better comparability of groups


c. have higher mortality rates


d. cost the same


84. If you want to answer a research question regarding whether a particular group of subjects


experiences any significant changes in behavior as they age but you do not have the time or


money for a traditional longitudinal study, which method would be acceptable?


a. cross-sectional


b. historical


c. follow-up


d. None of the above would be acceptable.


85. Which quasi-experimental design is the one most often used?


a. pretest posttest control group design


b. multiple baseline design


c. nonequivalent control group design


d. static group comparison design


86. Single subject designs are useful because they ____________.


a. allow for an in-depth examination of specific behaviors


b. are used when the behavior on which the researcher is focusing is not very well


defined in operational terms


c. allow for random assignment of participants into groups


d. have no threats to internal validity


87. When reviewing the problem and purpose sections of a research article, which of the


following questions would be pertinent?


a. Is the review recent?


b. Are the hypotheses clearly stated?


c. Are the results related to the hypotheses?


d. Is the objective of the study clearly stated?


88. Which is NOT a primary area to evaluate when judging a research report?


a. the hypothesis


b. the answer


c. the problem and purpose


d. references


89. When selecting a dependent variable, you should consider all of the following EXCEPT:


a. the measure has been used before.


b. the validity of the measure has been established.


c. the measure comes with testing forms.


d. norms are available, when applicable.


90. In a research proposal, what should follow the literature review section?


a. appendices


b. literature review


c. implications and limitations


d. method


91. In a research proposal, what should follow the implications and limitations section?


a. appendices


b. literature review


c. implications and limitations


d. method


92. Which section of the proposal contains information on the instrumentation used?


a. introduction


b. method


c. implications and limitations


d. literature review


93. What is the shortened title which appears at the top of each proposal page called?


a. an abstract


b. a running head


c. an introduction


d. a reference


94. Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?


a. introduction


b. methods


c. results


d. discussion


95. Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned


and used in the study?


a. introduction


b. abstract


c. results


d. method


96. Which is a subsection found in the method section?


a. introduction


b. running head


c. results


d. data analysis


97. What type of information may be contained in the appendices of a manuscript?


a. original data


b. author’s notes


c. references


d. both a and c


98. The hypothesis is most likely to appear at the end of which section of a manuscript?


a. introduction


b. methods


c. results


d. references


99. What guidelines do most journals in the social and behavioral sciences follow?


a. Index Medicus


b. American Psychological Association


c. Society of Psychiatric Journals


d. Modern Language Association


100. What material is included in the abstract?


a. a one-sentence statement of the purpose


b. tables showing results


c. a list of sources that were consulted during the research


d. discussion of the important relationships between past research, the purpose of the


current study, the hypothesis and the results of the study

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Category: Homework
Satisfied Customers: 5884
Experience: Bachelors Degree and CPA with Accounting work experience
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