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Question 1 Comparison of mortality rates due to cancer

Question 1 Comparison of...
Question 1

Comparison of mortality rates due to cancer of the uterus in users and nonusers of supplemental estrogen revealed the following results, where mortality rates are per 100,000: 3.0 (age 45-54) and 17.0 (age 55-70) among users of estrogen; 1.0 (age 45-54) and 6.0 (age 55-70) among nonusers of estrogen. A valid conclusion derived from the above data concerning mortality among estrogen users is:
Answer
The mortality rates for cancer of the uterus are lower in estrogen users than nonusers in both age groups studied.

A causal relationship is demonstrated between the use of estrogen and incidence of uterine cancer.

Mortality from cancer of the uterus rises with age regardless of whether or not estrogen is used.
The mortality rate is lower in nonusers than users because the symptoms of uterine cancer are detected earlier in the former group of women.
2 points
Question 2
Controls are needed in a case-control study to evaluate whether the frequency of a factor or past exposure among the cases is different from that among comparable persons who do not have the disease under investigation.
Answer True
False .
2 points
Question 3
Selection bias is most likely to occur in which type of study?
Answer
Prospective cohort studies
Retrospective cohort studies
Case-control studies
Both retrospective cohort and case-control studies
2 points
Question 4
For a variable to be a confounder, it must be:
Answer
Associated with the disease (outcome) under study
Associated with the risk factor (exposure) under study
Both of the above
Neither of the above
.2 points
Question 5
A study design method to control confounding involving the selection of study subjects so that potential confounders are distributed identically is called:
Answer
Multivariate modeling
Stratification
Matching
Restriction
2 points
Question 6
If a study fails to detect a significant difference between treatment A and treatment B when in fact the treatments do differ, the following type of error has occurred.
Answer
Type I error
Type II error
Treatment discrimination error
Difference testing error
.2 points
Question 7
Major potential biases in a cohort study can result from each of the following except:
Answer
Loss to follow-up
Nonresponse
Assessment of outcome
Recall
2 points
Question 8
When chance, bias, and confounding have been ruled out as alternative explanations for an association, we may conclude that the association is causal.
Answer True
False .
2 points
Question 9
A retrospective cohort study compared to a prospective cohort study of the same kind of exposure can be completed more quickly.
Answer True
False .
2 points
Question 10
Subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were compared to a comparable group without carpal tunnel syndrome, and both groups were asked about their prior occupational and recreational exposures, including hours per week of computer use. What type of study is this?
Answer
Case-control study

Prospective cohort study


Retrospective cohort study

Randomized clinical trial.

2 points


Question 11

Which of the following will not help to increase study precision (reduce random error)?
Answer
Using an accurate measuring instrument

Using an efficient study design
Using a small sample

Using repeat measures
2 points

Question 12

What sources can be used to identify controls for a case-control study?
Answer
General population
Hospital/clinic patients

Friends and relatives

All of the above
2 points
Question 13

A cross-sectional study allows the demonstration of a time sequence between the exposure and the outcome.
Answer True
False .

2 points

Question 14

Loss-to-follow-up can be a problem in observational studies but not experimental ones.
Answer True
False .

2 points

Question 15

When assessing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and oral cancer using a case-control study, increasing the sample size of the study will result in which of the following?
Answer

A lower P value

A greater odds ratio
A smaller 95% confidence interval

A higher disease prevalence
The 1st and 3rd answers only

The 2nd and 4th answers only

The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd answers only

All of the above
None of the above

.2 points

Question 16
Controlled clinical trials enable researchers to:
Answer
Derive knowledge about the origins of a disease
Control the level of exposure to a treatment
More accurately identify cause and effect
All of the above
2 points
Question 17
Randomized clinical trials can be used for each of the following except:
Answer
Evaluation of new drugs
Evaluation of alternate treatments
Assessment of screening programs
Identification of risk factors for disease
Question 18
The healthy worker effect is a form of what type of bias?
Answer
Selection bias
Control-selection bias
Interviewer/recording bias
Surveillance, diagnostic, or referral bias
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Answered in 1 hour by:
1/19/2013
Bizhelp
Bizhelp, CPA
Category: Homework
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