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Child Growth and Development

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1. Connectionist models provide evidence that:

A. Infants begin life with special-purpose knowledge systems.
B. Supports the core knowledge perspective.
C. Neural networks are initially weak, sufficient only to support looking behavior.
D. Connections between units change very little with age.

2. Piaget’s famous _______ problem demonstrates preoperational children’s difficulty with _______.
A. Three-mountains; dual representation
B. Three-mountains; hierarchical classification
C. Class inclusion; hierarchical classification
D. Class inclusion; dual representation

3. The goal of Binet and Simon’s original intelligence test was to: ***** a battery of tests that could be used to assess infant mental development.
B. Develop an objective method for assigning students to special classes.
C. Determine the underlying mental abilities associated with intelligence.
D. Devise a systematic method for assessing classroom disruptiveness.

4. Heritability estimates are computed by comparing the IQ correlations of:
A. The same group of individuals at various points in time.
B. Individuals from different ethnic and SES groups.
C. Children of different ages.
D. Twins and other relatives.

5. Today, virtually all experts agree that:
A. Piaget largely neglected children’s independent efforts in constructing their own knowledge.
B. Children’s cognition isn’t as broadly stagelike as Piaget believed.
C. Younger children appear less competent and older children more competent than Piaget believed.
D. Cognitive development begins with far more than just sensorimotor reflexes.

6. Which of the following statements about the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is correct?
A. It emphasizes complex cognitive skills, such as infant memory and problem solving.
B. It’s helpful for assessing the health and well-being of newborns.
C. It taps the same dimensions of intelligence as assessed in childhood.
D. It doesn’t tap the same dimensions of intelligence as assessed in childhood.

7. Sally’s memory for her first trip to Disney World resides in her _______ memory.
A. Semantic
B. Script
C. Short-term  
D. Autobiographical

8. Cooing in infancy refers to:
A.  Strings of different speech sounds.
B. Repeated vowel-consonant combinations.
C. One-syllable vowel-like noises.
D. Strings of several identical sounds.

9. According to Vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years:
A. Reflects young children’s egocentrism.
B. Doesn’t play a major role in young children’s cognitive development.
C. Is due to young children’s poor communication skills.
D. Helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks.

10. According to the principle of mutual exclusivity bias, children:
A. Assume that objects have multiple labels.
B. Ignore the shapes of objects and focus instead on color distinctions.
C. Assume that words refer to nonoverlapping categories.
D. Discover the structure of sentences by relying on the meanings of words.

11. Dr. Bean believes that language development is a product of inner predispositions and environmental influences. Dr. Bean’s belief is consistent with the _______ perspective.
A. Behaviorist
B. Nativist.
C. Interactionist  
D. Psychoanalytical

12. Research has shown that most preschoolers
A. Don’t use the words “think,” “remember,” or “pretend.”
B. Have a complete grasp of cognitive processes.
C. Believe that an event can be known without being directly observed.
D. Often insist they’ve always known information they just learned.

13. Which factors seem to be most important for the development of make-believe play?
A. Maturation of the frontal lobes and the cerebellum
B. Children’s readiness to engage in make-believe play and the social experiences that promote it
C. Development of perspective taking and social problem-solving skills
D. Opportunities for peer interaction in settings that inspire make-believe play

14. Tyrone groups words with agent qualities as subjects and words with action qualities as verbs. He then merges these categories into sentences. Tyrone is demonstrating:
A. Semantic bootstrapping.
B. Syntactic bootstrapping.
C. Telegraphic speech.  
D. Semantic complexity.

15. Grammar consists of two main parts: _______ and _______.
A. Pragmatics; semantics
B. Syntax; semantics
C. Syntax; morphology
D. Morphology; phonology

16. In Piaget’s theory, a circular reaction is a means of building schemes in which infants:
A. Construct mental representations of sights and sounds encountered as they interact with the environment.
B. Try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again.
C. Make use of operant conditioning to make sense of everyday experiences.
D. Attempt to imitate the behaviors of those around them.

17. Research shows that children who become fluent in two languages:
A. Often receive support for their native language in school.
B. Are actually advanced in cognitive development.
C. Can acquire normal native ability in only one language.
D. Often show serious metalinguistic deficits.

18. Respecting research investigations of creativity, it’s generally found that:
A. Creativity involves alternating between divergent and convergent thinking.
B. Extensive knowledge isn’t necessary for one to creatively contribute to a field of study.
C. IQ and creativity are highly correlated.
D. Creative people typically have little patience and persistence in the face of obstacles.

19. In the _____ model, information first enters the sensory register.
A. Store
B. Biological
C. Encoding
D. Transfer

20. Longitundinal research reveals that the IQ score of most children ____ during childhood and adolescence.
A. Remain stable.
B. Vary by about 50 points.
C. Fluctuate.
D. Increase by about 35 points.

1. Trevor is unable to engage in nonverbal communication behaviors, and his language tends to be imitative. He pays little attention to the people around him, preferring to sit and play intensely at activities requiring repetitive motions. Trevor is displaying qualities that are characteristic of:
A. Bipolar disorder.
B. A learning disability.
C. Mental Retardation.
D. Autism

2. Four –year-old Ella becomes nervous when her swimming class practices using a life vest, which forces her into a floating position on her back. She looks at her mother, who smiles calmly at her. Reassured, Ella relaxes and enjoys floating on her back. Ella’s situation illustrates the use of:
A. Social referencing.
B. Emotional display rules.
C. Empathy.
D. Sympathy.

3. Most researchers _______ Gilligan’s claim that Kohlberg underestimated the moral maturity of females.
A. Support.
B. Reject.
C. Are divided over.
D. Are unaware of.

4. Which young adult is at risk of long-term identity foreclosure or diffusion?
A. A college graduate who switches majors.
B. An aspiring chef, who has no opportunity for culinary training.
C. A young woman with several possible vocational choices.
D. A Peace Corps volunteer.

5. Mastery of gender ______ is associated with the attainment of conversation.
A. Typing.
B. Equality.
C. Constancy.
D. Stereotyping.

6. Elevated heart rate and blood pressure, a depressed immune response, and reduced digestive activity are all outcomes of:
A. Social referencing.
B. Poor prenatal care.
C. Joint attention.
D. Psychological stress.

7. _________ is the only emotion that males express more freely than females in everyday interactions.
A. Anger.
B. Sorrow.
C. Embarrassment.
D. Envy.

8. Parents of impulsive children can foster conscience development by building a warm affectionate relationship that promotes:
A. Frequent power assertions.
B. Secure attachment.
C. Ego development.
D. Fear and guilt.

9. Dr. Thorne is interested in learning how children come to understand their multifaceted world. In her research, she asks questions like, “When do infants discover that they’re separate beings, distinct from other people and objects?” Dr. Thorne is studying:
A. Social cognition.
B. The inner self.
C. Self-concept.
D. Social comparisons.

10. Dr. Bouview observes the bees sacrifice their lives to protect the hives and a dog cowers in the corner after wetting the carpet. Dr. Bouvier concludes that many morally relevant behaviors have evolutionary roots, which is consistent with _____ theories of human social behavior.
A. Piaget’s
B. Social learning
C. Biological
D. Kohlberg’s

11. In Kohlberg’s theory, at the _______ level, moral understanding is based on rewards, punishments, and the power or authority figures.
A. Principled
B. Precoventional
C. Conventional
D. Postconventional

12. When both parents believe that men are capable of nurturing infants,
A. Mothers devote less time to caregiving.
B. Fathers devote less time to caregiving.
C. Fathers devote more time to caregiving.
D. The marital relationship tends to suffer, particularly when men spend little time in the caregiver role.

13. Typically, when paired with a boy in a laboratory play session, a two-year-old girl is likely to:
A, Stand idly by while the boy explores the toys.
B. Assume domineering behavior and tell the boy what to do.
C. Actively explore the surroundings.
D. Play cooperatively with the boy.

14. The _____ emphasizes that the broad function of _______ is to energize behavior aimed at attaining personal goals.
A. Ethological theory of attachment; reasoning
B. Functionalist approach, emotion
C. Goodness-of-it model; cognition
D. Synchronous approach, language

15. A parent who uses imperatives and specific suggestions in everyday life is most likely the parent of a:
A. Son
B. Teenager
C. Daughter
D. Son and a daughter

16. Both Piaget and Kohlberg used a/an ______ procedure to study moral development.
A. Clinical interviewing
B. Structured observation
C. Cross-sectional
D. Ecological

17. Baby Eniko grasps her mother’s hair, gazes into her eyes and smiles. These actions bring Eniko into close contact with her mother, which comforts her. According to Bowlby’s theory of attachment, Eniko is in the ______ phase.
A. Reciprocal relationship
B. Clear-cut
C. Attachment-in-the-making
D. Preattachment

18. Mischel’s research shows that _____ is especially important in teaching children to delay gratification and resis temptation.
A. The belief-desire theory of mind
B. Diverting attention
C. Perspective taking
D. Reinforcing

19. Dean associates certain activities, roles, and trails as being typical for either males or females. His associations conform to cultural stereotypes and encompass many gender-linked responses. This is an example of gender:
A. Atypicality
B. Roles
C. Typing
D. Identity

20. _______ is considered a powerful tool in self-development because it permits children to represent and express the self more clearly.
A. Language
B. Movement
C. A large social network
D. Recursive thought

Here are my answers for comparison with your own:
1. D. Autism
2. A. Social referencing
3. B. Reject
4. B. An aspiring chef who has no opportunity for culinary training
5. C. Constancy
6. D. Psychological stress
7. A. Anger
8. B. Secure attachment
9. C. Self-concept
10. C. Biological
11. B. Preconventional
12. C. Fathers devote more time to caregiving
13. A. Stand idly by while the boy explores the toys
14. B. Functionalist approach; emotion
15. C. Daughter
16. A. Clinical interviewing
17. B. Clear-cut
18. B. Diverting attention
19. C. Typing
20. A. Language


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