21. LaTara has a high pain tolerance, while Janae has a low pain tolerance. The difference is most likely due to
a. the type of pain each is enduring
b. differences in their body chemistry
c. the attitudes they learned by observing role models
d. whether the pain avoidance is episodic or cyclic
22. the human sex drive
a. is not necessary for individual survival, but is necessary for
the survival of the human species.
b. refers to one’s sexual orientation and the type of sexual
behaviors one engages in.
c. is cyclic and homoeostatic
d. shows a clear relationship to deprivation, that is, the amount
of time that has passed since the drive was last satisfied.
23. according to arousal theory, which of the following is FALSE?
a. an individual becomes uncomfortable when arousal is too
low or too high.
b. the right mix of activities prevents boredom and
c. stimulus drives are non-homeostatic.
d. most adults vary their activities to keep arousal at a
comfortable level of activation.
24. Jan and her husband Dean are going on a vacation to the beach. Jan wants to lie on the beach and read a good book, while Dean wants to scuba dive and surf. Jan appears to be , while Dean appears to be .
a. self-actualized; fixated
b. fixated; self-actualized
c. a high sensation seeker; a low sensation seeker
d. a low sensation seeker; a high sensation seeker
25. On the day of the test, eddie was very sleepy, while Petra was in a state of panic about the test. According to the arousal theory,
a. both eddie and petra will probably perform well on the test,
since test taking is not influenced by arousal levels.
b. both eddie and petra will probably perform well since they
are both functioning at their optimal arousal levels.
c. both eddie and petra will probably perform poorly on the test,
because his arousal is too low and hers is too high.
d. petra will probably perform well since she is focused, while
Eddie will probably perform poorly due to a low arousal level.
26. Test anxiety is a combination of
a. low arousal level and lack of focus.
b. overpreparation and literal interpretation.
c. high arousal level and excessive worry.
d. over preparation and excessive worry.
27. You have a friend who freezes on tests. What is the most direct remedy you could recommend?
a. Take deep breaths and practice progressive muscle
b. over prepare by studying long before the test date.
c. rehearse your reactions to a failure on this test.
d. talk to a counsellor or a trusted friend.
28. Regarding motives, which of the following is FALSE?
a. the behavior of outstanding artists, scientists, and educators
is best understood in terms of learned needs, particularly the
need for achievement.
b. Success, approval, grades, and dominance are considered
c. we acquire social motives through socialization and cultural
d. the need for achievement differs from the need for power.
29. Abby is a college student who enjoys taking challenging classes so that she can learn skills that will be helpful to her in the future. Although she has high A’s in all of her courses, she strives to do the best she can on every test and assignment because it is important to her to meet her own standards of excellence. McClellard would say that Abby has a high need for
c. extrinsic motivation
d. all of these
30. persons with a high need for achievement tend to
a. be moderate risk takers
b. avoid easy goals because they offer no sense of satisfaction.
c. avoid long shots because there is either no hope of success
or the “winning” will be due to luck rather than skill.
d. all of these.
31. people can improve everyday motivation by increasing their , which involves the belief that they can successfully carry out an activity or reach a goal.
b. optimal arousal
d. sense of power
32. Although she has grown up in an upper middle-class family and lived in small reasonably safe town, Patti has always felt that she was different from her siblings and from the other teenagers at school. Due to this feeling of “not fitting in,” Patti joined a cult. Abraham Maslow would say that Patti joined the cult because she was trying to fulfil which basic need?
a. love and belonging need
b. security needs
c. self-esteem needs
33. When Maslow designated some needs as “basic needs,” he meant that they were
a. less important to individual survival.
b. less likely to lead to activities considered admirable in
c. more likely to direct human activity until they were met.
d. more likely to be unconscious than conscious.
34. Maslow estimated that few people in our society are primarily motivated by needs for with most of us being .
a. love and belonging; more concerned with esteem or security
b. esteem and self-esteem; nor concerned with love and
c. self-actualization; more concerned with esteem, love, or
d. safety and security; more concerned with self-actualization.
35. an employment recruiter who offers challenges and a chance to explore and earn rather than high pay is seeking employees who are
a. extrinsically motivated
b. intrinsically motivated
c. older and more traditional
d. lower skilled
36. Regarding emotions, which of the following is/are TRUE?
a. emotions help us develop positive emotional bonds of love,
caring, and friendship.
b. emotions are linked to many basic adaptive behaviors that
c. emotions can have negative effects, such as stage freight or
“choking up” in sports performances.
d. all of these are true, regarding emotions.
37. you are about to make a speech. Your hands tremble, your posture tenses, and your voice has a slight quiver as you begin. These outward signs represent which component of emotion?
a. emotional feelings
b. emotional expressions
c. physiological changes
d. emotional behavioral symptoms
38. concerning Robert Plutchik’s theory of primary emotions, which of the following is False?
a. primary emotions can be mixed to yield a third, more
b. jealousy is a mixture of love, anger, and fear.
c. Awe, love, aggression, and guilt are four of the primary
d. each primary emotion can vary in intensity.
39. concerning moods, which of the following is FALSE?
a. moods are the most extreme forms of emotions.
b. moods tend to be generally lower for most weekdays than
they are on weekends.
c. it is possible to have positive and negative emotions at the
d. moods affect day-to-day behavior by preparing us to act in
40. you are feeling sad and depressed. Research into brain activity would indicate that processing is primarily occurring in
a. the mid brain
b. the left hemisphere
c. the right hemisphere
d. both hemispheres.