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8/22/2012
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Customer:







































































Nt = N0 lt represents:















A. annual growth rate.
B. geometric population growth.
C. exponential growth rate.
D. logistic growth.

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An annual plant when initially colonizing an area will probably demonstrate:















A. annual growth rate.
B. geometric population growth.
C. exponential growth rate.
D. logistic growth.

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The exponential population growth equation can be used for:















A. populations with overlapping generations.
B. populations experiencing continuous growth.
C. populations with nonpulsed reproduction.
D. all of the populations listed above.

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Density dependent factors include all of the following EXCEPT:















A. competition.
B. disease.
C. predation.
D. temperature.

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Human populations are clumped on a large scale with the greatest concentration in:















A. Africa.
B. Asia.
C. Europe.
D. North America.

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If the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is:















A. stable.
B. declining.
C. growing slowly.
D. growing rapidly.

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If the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is:















A. stable.
B. declining.
C. growing slowly.
D. growing rapidly.

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If the age distribution diagram has the smallest concentration of individuals in the bottom portion or is considered to be an urn shape, this indicates that:















A. the population is stable.
B. the population is declining.
C. the population is growing slowly.
D. the population is growing rapidly.

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A polymorphic locus is one that:















A. codes for more than one protein.
B. codes for both protein and lipid.
C. occurs in a population as more than one allele.
D. occurs on more than one chromosome.

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The number of eggs laid by a female is called her:















A. fertility.
B. gonadosomatic index.
C. growth form.
D. fecundity.

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A "forb" is a(n):















A. fish species living in the open ocean.
B. bird species having offspring independent at a young age.
C. plant species with woody tissue.
D. herbaceous, but non-graminoid, plant species.

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The "K" in "K-selection" comes from the:















A. ecologist who coined it, Astrid Kodric-Brown.
B. shape of the age-vs.-mortality-rate plot for K-selected species.
C. "K" in the logistic growth equation.
D. Greek letter "kappa," symbolizing fecundity.

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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic favored by K-selection?















A. Low intrinsic rate of increase
B. Late reproduction
C. Many, small offspring
D. Repeated bouts of reproduction

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Which of the following environments for germinating seed is most likely to favor a plant species that makes many small seeds, compared to one that makes fewer larger seeds?















A. Nutrient limitation
B. Competition from established plants
C. Shade
D. Disturbance

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"Riparian" refers to plant communities occurring:















A. in the tropics.
B. at high altitudes.
C. along the edges of deserts.
D. in transitions between riverbanks and upland areas.

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The study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events is called:















A. ecology.
B. phenology.
C. oenology.
D. climatology.

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__________ show more variation in life history traits than any other group.















A. Insects
B. Mammals
C. Birds
D. Fish

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Turner and Trexler found a __________ relationship between egg size and __________ in the darter populations that live in rivers and streams of central North America.















A. positive; gene flow
B. positive; egg number
C. positive; female size
D. negative; gene flow

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Westoby, Leishman, and Lord found that on average, __________ produce the largest seeds.















A. forbs
B. woody plants
C. climbing plants and vines
D. graminoids

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Which of the following are characteristics favored by K selection?















A. Rapid development
B. Small body size
C. Iteroparity
D. High rmax

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Gause's "competitive exclusion principle" states that:















A. when two species occur together, competition is always prevented by some behavioral adjustment.
B. no two species can coexist indefinitely.
C. no two competing species can coexist indefinitely.
D. no two species with identical niches can coexist indefinitely.

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In the Lotka-Volterra competition equations, if a21 > 1, then:















A. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 1 than by each individual of species 2.
B. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 2 than by each individual of species 1.
C. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced equally by individuals of either species 1 or species 2.
D. we would also have to know the value of K2 to decide which of the above is true.

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Analysis of the Lotka-Volterra competition model implies that two competitors can coexist only when:















A. interspecific competition is stronger than intraspecific competition.
B. intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition.
C. intraspecific and interspecific competition are equally strong.
D. predation or parasitism is stronger than interspecific competition.

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Two species occurring together in the same place are said to be:















A. competitors.
B. precocial.
C. mutualists.
D. sympatric.

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The __________ niche defines the physical conditions under which a species might live, in the absence of interaction with other species.















A. functional
B. realized
C. principle
D. fundamental

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The process of evolution toward niche divergence in the face of competition is called:















A. niche displacement.
B. niche evolution.
C. character displacement.
D. character evolution.

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A species feeding on the tissue of its host, while not killing it directly, is a:















A. predator.
B. parasite.
C. parasitoid.
D. cannibal.

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A "negatively phototaxic" amphipod will swim:















A. away from parasitic worms.
B. towards parasitic worms.
C. away from competing amphipods.
D. away from light.

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The presence of parasitic protozoa in a culture of competing Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum:















A. increases the likelihood of coexistence.
B. decreases the likelihood of coexistence.
C. has no effect on the outcome of competition.
D. can reverse the outcome of competition.

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The infestation of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) in Australia was controlled by the release of a moth, Cactoblastis, which impacts cactus populations because it:















A. consumes cactus seeds.
B. consumes cactus pads.
C. introduces, as it attacks, fungi and bacteria that attack cactus pads.
D. both consumes cactus pads and introduces, as it attacks, fungi and bacteria that attack cactus pads.

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The standard error of the mean is equal to:















A. the sample variance divided by the sample size.
B. the sample variance divided by the square root of the sample size.
C. the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size.
D. twice the square root of the sample size.

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Gause's experiments with Paramecium and Didinium showed:















A. extinction of the predator, followed by extinction of the prey, in all habitats.
B. coexistence of predator and prey with oscillating population sizes, but only in the presence of refuges and predator reservoirs.
C. coexistence of predator and prey, but with oscillating population sizes, in all habitats.
D. coexistence of predator and prey at fairly constant population sizes, but only in the presence of refuges and predator reservoirs.

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Periodical cicadas spend 13 or 17 years:















A. feeding in tree twigs before emerging as adults.
B. feeding on tree roots before emerging as adults.
C. as adults before laying eggs.
D. in a resistant, resting egg before hatching as larvae.

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Schistosoma flukes attack their human hosts when those humans:















A. consume infected freshwater snails.
B. consume infected fish.
C. consume plant tissue bearing spores.
D. bathe in water containing infective cercariae.

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Use of Procambarus crayfish to combat schistosomiasis in Africa:















A. is likely to be effective, and poses no important ecological risks.
B. is likely to be effective, but poses ecological risks because Procambarus is not native to Africa.
C. is unlikely to be effective, because the crayfish seem to eat infected snails only in the laboratory.
D. is unlikely to be effective, because the crayfish are just as suitable as hosts for the parasite as were the snails.

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An interaction between individuals of different species that benefit both partners is called:















A. commensalism.
B. predation.
C. exploitation.
D. mutualism.

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__________ mutualism describes a relationship where species are so dependent on their mutualistic relationship they cannot live in its absence.















A. Obligate
B. Critical
C. Facultative
D. Dispensable

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Mycorrhizal fungi (directly) help their plant partners acquire:















A. sugars.
B. sunlight.
C. seed dispersal.
D. soil nutrients.

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Ant-acacia trees provide several services to their mutualistic ant partners. These include:















A. enlarged thorns to host ant colonies.
B. nectar from foliar nectaries.
C. nectar from floral nectaries.
D. both enlarged thorns to host ant colonies and nectar from foliar nectaries.

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The major benefit obtained by aspen sunflower, Helianthella quinquenervis, from its ant mutualists is:















A. improved attraction of pollinators.
B. reduced loss of leaf tissue to herbivorous insects.
C. more efficient extraction of soil nutrients.
D. reduced losses of seeds to seed predators.

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Joseph Connell's "intermediate disturbance hypothesis" proposes that:















A. species diversity is highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.
B. species diversity is lowest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.
C. population growth rates are highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.
D. competitive exclusion is fastest at intermediate levels of disturbance.

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A "community" is defined as:















A. a group of organisms that all make their living in a similar way.
B. a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.
C. the portion of a defined area that supports life.
D. an association of interacting species inhabiting a defined area.

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In most ecological communities:















A. most species are extremely rare.
B. few species are very abundant.
C. most species are moderately abundant.
D. both few species are very abundant, and most species are moderately abundant.

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Robert MacArthur's study of forest warblers suggested that:















A. fewer warbler species can survive in more complex habitats.
B. warbler species diversity increases with habitat complexity.
C. warbler species diversity decreases with habitat complexity.
D. most warblers have rather similar foraging niches.

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Niches of single-celled algae, such as diatoms, seem most often to be distinguished by their requirements for:















A. different combinations of inorganic nutrients.
B. different light environments.
C. different water-flow environments.
D. different water temperatures.

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In the Amazon forest, slight changes in soil properties tend to be correlated with:















A. similar, slight differences in plant communities.
B. no detectable differences in plant communities.
C. dramatic differences in plant communities.
D. dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is moisture.

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In Robert Paine's studies of the Washington intertidal community, which organism proved to be a keystone species?















A. The whelk Thais
B. Acorn barnacles
C. Chitons
D. The starfish Pisaster

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In the Washington intertidal community studied by Robert Paine, the most important limiting resource is:















A. space.
B. light.
C. plankton.
D. nitrogen.

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We can infer a statistically significant difference between two population means when:















A. our estimates of the two means are different.
B. the variances of the two means do not overlap.
C. the standard deviations of the two means do not overlap.
D. the 95% confidence intervals for the two means do not overlap.

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Weaver ants provide effective protection of citrus trees because they:















A. remove harmful soft-scale insects (mealybugs).
B. remove all plant-feeding insects.
C. cultivate soft-scale insects, but do not allow them to feed on the trees.
D. cultivate soft-scale insects, but still allow them to be attacked by parasitoids and predators.

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The Nile perch population explosion has been accompanied by:















A. a decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the shallowest portions of Lake Victoria.
B. a decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the deepest portions of Lake Victoria.
C. an increase in the dissolved oxygen in the deepest portions of Lake Victoria.
D. an increase in the dissolved oxygen in the shallowest portions of Lake Victoria.

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Based on studies by Jane Lubchenko, what influence does the population density of the herbivorous intertidal snail, Littorina littorea, have on the number of algal species?















A. As snail density increases from low to medium, the number of algal species increases.
B. As snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species increases.
C. As snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species decreases.
D. Both as snail density increases from low to medium the number of algal species increases and as snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species decreases.

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Teja Tscharntke simplified the food web associated with the wetland reed Phragmites australis by dividing the species into the following major trophic levels?















A. Plant, herbivore, piscivore, and granivore
B. Herbivore, carnivore, detritivore, and consumer
C. Herbivore, parasite, carnivore, and detritivore
D. Plant, herbivore, parasite, and carnivore

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Net primary productivity is the primary productivity of an ecosystem, after subtracting energy lost in:















A. dead plant tissues.
B. inedible plant tissues.
C. respiration by primary producers.
D. respiration by primary consumers.

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"Actual evapotranspiration" for an ecosystem refers to the amount of water that:















A. is taken up from soils by plant roots.
B. evaporates from soils.
C. is transpired by plants.
D. evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.

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Leibig's "Law of the Minimum" stated that:















A. the lowest primary productivity occurs in the coldest ecosystems.
B. primary productivity is typically controlled entirely by climate.
C. primary productivity is typically controlled by both climate and soil nutrients.
D. a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.

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Experimental fertilizations in the Baltic Sea suggest that primary productivity there is normally limited by:















A. phosphorus.
B. nitrogen.
C. iron.
D. potassium.

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The "trophic cascade hypothesis" emphasizes the role of:















A. nutrients in controlling primary productivity.
B. nutrients in controlling primary consumption.
C. grazing by herbivores in controlling primary productivity.
D. grazing by herbivores in controlling ecosystem nutrient levels.

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In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the largest "standing stock" of energy is represented by biomass of:















A. living plant tissues.
B. dead plant tissues.
C. invertebrate herbivores.
D. vertebrate herbivores.

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An increase about 1,000 years ago in 13C content of human collagen from archeological sites in eastern North America probably records:















A. replacement of vegetables and grains in the diet by meat.
B. replacement of corn by beans and squash in the diet.
C. increasing consumption of corn.
D. increasing levels of 13C in soils.


Customer:







































































The largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is phosphorus:















A. in the atmosphere.
B. dissolved in water.
C. in rocks and sediments.
D. bound in animal tissues.

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"Nitrogen fixation" refers to the conversion of:















A. carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.
B. nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).
C. ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).
D. ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).

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"Nitrification" is the conversion of:















A. carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.
B. nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).
C. ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).
D. ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).

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A major perturbation of the carbon cycle by human activity is associated with:















A. release of carbon from carbonate rocks.
B. release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.
C. removal of carbon from the atmosphere in the industrial production of fertilizers.
D. accelerated removal of carbon from the atmosphere by forests.

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In aquatic ecosystems, leaves with high lignin content decompose:















A. rapidly because lignin is a nutrient-rich compound.
B. rapidly because lignin enhances colonization by decomposing fungi.
C. slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.
D. slowly because lignin is a carbon-poor compound.

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In aquatic ecosystems, the major agents of decomposition are:















A. aquatic fungi.
B. bacteria.
C. algae.
D. detritivorous fish.

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Clearcutting at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest sharply:















A. increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
B. decreased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
C. increased rates of denitrification in soils.
D. decreased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.

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In Judy Meyer and Gene Likens' study of phosphorus in Bear Brook:















A. most phosphorus inputs occurred during spring snowmelt.
B. phosphorus inputs were nearly constant over the year.
C. most phosphorus losses occurred during autumn leaf fall.
D. most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.

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Fungi and bacteria release nitrogen stored in dead tissue through a decomposition process called:















A. nitrogen fixation.
B. ammonification.
C. denitrification.
D. nitrification.

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Nitrate is converted to molecular nitrogen, N2, in a process called:















A. nitrogen fixation.
B. ammonification.
C. denitrification.
D. nitrification.

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In stream ecosystems, nutrient retentiveness is:















A. not related to spiraling length.
B. positively related to spiraling length.
C. inversely related to spiraling length.
D. a logarithmic function of spiraling length.

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"Primary" succession is succession that:















A. involves establishment of primary producers where there were none.
B. leads to establishment of a climax community dominated by primary producers.
C. occurs on newly exposed geologic substrates, not organic soil.
D. occurs where organic soils have been exposed but not destroyed by disturbance.

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The pioneer species at Glacier Bay, Alaska include:















A. mosses.
B. Dryas.
C. alders.
D. horsetails.

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During primary succession at Glacier Bay, overall plant species diversity:















A. first increases rapidly, then levels off.
B. increases steadily throughout succession.
C. increases slowly at first, then more rapidly after a few hundred years.
D. peaks at intermediate successional stages.

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How does canopy shading influence succession of pines and deciduous trees in the Piedmont of North Carolina?















A. Canopy shading by deciduous trees is required for growth of pines.
B. Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents establishment of pines until late in succession.
C. Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.
D. Canopy shading by pines prevents establishment of deciduous trees.

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During succession in Arizona streams, nitrogen retention:















A. increases at first, but then declines late in succession.
B. increases steadily through succession.
C. increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.
D. increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

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According to the "facilitation" hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that:















A. make it more suitable for their own survival, and less suitable for other species.
B. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.
C. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.
D. make it less suitable for survival of all species.

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According to the "inhibition" hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that:















A. make it less suitable for other species.
B. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.
C. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.
D. make it more suitable for survival of all species.

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The change in plant, animal, and microbial communities in an area following disturbance or the creation of new substrate is called:















A. progression.
B. succession.
C. replacement.
D. colonization

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According to the tolerance model of succession:















A. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for the establishment by all species.
B. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for early successional species, but neither less nor more favorable for late successional species.
C. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for early successional species, but more suitable for late successional species.
D. only early successional species can establish as succession begins.

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FiveStarLaw :

I can answer 60 similar questions by this evening.

FiveStarLaw :

are you there

Customer:

yes


 


 

Customer:

similar quesions?


 

FiveStarLaw :

yes – you posted 20 but have 60 questions. I am assuming that the remaining 40 are similar

Customer:

I have 80


 

FiveStarLaw :

ok I can answer a total of 40 on this page for a bonus of $40. You can then submit the remaining 40 questions on a new page for similar fee structure

Customer:

I can pay you $80 for 80 thats $1 per question


 

FiveStarLaw :

When do you need the answers?

Customer:

this evening


 

FiveStarLaw :

okay so to confirm – you will leave a bonus of $80

Customer:

ok that will be fine

FiveStarLaw :

okay. I am going to change the format to question-and-answer rather than live chat

Ask Your Own Homework Question
Here is the first group of 20:

1. Nt = N0 lt represents: (Points: 5)
geometric population growth.


2. An annual plant when initially colonizing an area will probably demonstrate: (Points: 5)
geometric population growth..



3. The exponential population growth equation can be used for: (Points: 5)
all of the populations listed above.


4. Density dependent factors include all of the following EXCEPT: (Points: 5)
temperature


5. Human populations are clumped on a large scale with the greatest concentration in: (Points: 5)
Asia.



6. If the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is: (Points: 5)
growing rapidly.

7. If the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is: (Points: 5)
stable.



8. If the age distribution diagram has the smallest concentration of individuals in the bottom portion or is considered to be an urn shape, this indicates that: (Points: 5)

the population is declining..


9. A polymorphic locus is one that: (Points: 5)

occurs in a population as more than one allele.



10. The number of eggs laid by a female is called her: (Points: 5)

fecundity.


11. A "forb" is a(n): (Points: 5)

herbaceous, but non-graminoid, plant species.


12. The "K" in "K-selection" comes from the: (Points: 5)
"K" in the logistic growth equation. .


13. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic favored by K-selection? (Points: 5)

Many, small offspring



14. Which of the following environments for germinating seed is most likely to favor a plant species that makes many small seeds, compared to one that makes fewer larger seeds? (Points: 5)

Disturbance


15. "Riparian" refers to plant communities occurring: (Points: 5)

in transitions between riverbanks and upland areas.


16. The study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events is called: (Points: 5)

phenology.

17. __________ show more variation in life history traits than any other group. (Points: 5)

Fish


18. Turner and Trexler found a __________ relationship between egg size and __________ in the darter populations that live in rivers and streams of central North America. (Points: 5)

negative; gene flow


19. Westoby, Leishman, and Lord found that on average, __________ produce the largest seeds. (Points: 5)

woody plants



20. Which of the following are characteristics favored by K selection? (Points: 5)
Iteroparity


Please let me know how we did. I will post the other 60 answers later today
Ask Your Own Homework Question
Customer reply replied 5 years ago


ok going to check right now..please if we did good post the other questions asap..you are really fast thank you

Customer reply replied 5 years ago

Yes I got a 95. Please post the rest..Thanks

Customer reply replied 5 years ago


Hello


in how long do you think you will have the rest of the answers? I just wanted to know when I should check back?

I am going to work on your answers now. I will need about another hour or 2
Ask Your Own Homework Question

 

Here are my answers for comparison with your own:

 

2ND SET

1 Gause's "competitive exclusion principle" states that:

D. no two species with identical niches can coexist indefinitely.

2 ?In the Lotka-Volterra competition equations, if a21 > 1, then:

3 A. interspecific competition is stronger than intraspecific competition.
4 D sympatric
5 D. fundamental
6 C. character displacement
7 B. parasite
8 D. away from light.
9 D. can reverse the outcome of competition.
10 D. both consumes cactus pads and introduces, as it attacks, fungi and bacteria that attack cactus pads.
11C. the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size
12B. coexistence of predator and prey with oscillating population sizes, but only in the presence of refuges and predator reservoirs.
13 B. feeding on tree roots before emerging as adult
14 D. bathe in water containing infective cercariae.
15 B. is likely to be effective, but poses ecological risks because Procambarus is not native to Africa.
16 D. mutualism.
17 A. Obligate
18 D. both enlarged thorns to host ant colonies and nectar from foliar nectaries.
19 D. soil nutrients.
20 D . reduced losses of seeds to seed predators.

 

 

3RD SET
1. species diversity is highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.
2. an association of interacting species inhabiting a defined area.
3. both few species are very abundant, and most species are moderately abundant.
4. warbler species diversity increases with habitat complexity.
5. different combinations of inorganic nutrients.
6. dramatic differences in plant communities.
7. The starfish Pisaster
8. space.
9. the 95% confidence intervals for the two means do not overlap.
10. cultivate soft-scale insects, but still allow them to be attacked by parasitoids and predators.
11. a decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the deepest portions of Lake Victoria.
12. Both as snail density increases from low to medium the number of algal species increases and as snail density increases from medium to high, the number of algal species decreases.
13. Herbivore, parasite, carnivore, and detritivore
14. inedible plant tissues.
15. evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.
16. a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.
17. nitrogen.
18. grazing by herbivores in controlling primary productivity.
19. dead plant tissues.
20. increasing consumption of corn.

 

The 4th set is complete as well. Please rate and bonus the work as agreed. I will then post the 4th set

 

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Customer reply replied 5 years ago


ok one more set right?


I have completed the 4th set as well. I would appreciate it if you would rate and bonus the work as agreed. I will then post the 4th set
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Customer reply replied 5 years ago


ok let me go ahead and do the assignment and I will pay you asap

ok

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Customer reply replied 5 years ago


what about this one


 


In the Lotka-Volterra competition equations, if a21 > 1, then:

















A. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 1 than by each individual of species 2.
B. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced more by each individual of species 2 than by each individual of species 1.
C. the population growth rate of species 2 is reduced equally by individuals of either species 1 or species 2.
D. we would also have to know the value of K2 to decide which of the above is true.
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Thank you. Here are the 4th set of answers for comparison with your own

4TH SET


1. in rocks and sediments.
2. nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3).
3. ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).
4. release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.
5. slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.
6. aquatic fungi.
7. increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
8. most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.
9. ammonification.
10. denitrification.
11. inversely related to spiraling length.
12. occurs where organic soils have been exposed but not destroyed by disturbance.
13. horsetails.
14. first increases rapidly, then levels off.
15. Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.
16. increases at first, but then declines late in succession.
17. make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.
18. make it less suitable for other species.
19. succession
20. early successional species modify the environment making it less suitable for early successional species, but neither less nor more favorable for late successional species.
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Customer reply replied 5 years ago


Ok, on my next assignment I have 160 questions for human resourse management, do I have to make a new post? and what do you want total price with bonus?

That sounds great!

You are required to open a new post – site rules. $200 total, 160 bonus and 40 to the site when you open the question would be fair.
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Customer reply replied 5 years ago


ok if I have time tonight I will post a question and mark it for fivestarlaw so you will know to get it..

I will look for it. Have a good night
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