HI Chris....here are the four assignments I am currently working on if you are still able and willing to assist.
INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDANCE TRADITION
1. Studies conducted by Purkey and Hamachek in the 1970s found that
A. corporal punishment doesn't enhance cooperation in a classroom.
B. students work harder in a system of rewards and punishments.
C. there's a correlation between self-esteem and educational practices.
D. there's a difference between behavior and misbehavior.
2. Part of the NAEYC's definition of guidance includes
A. teaching children to learn from their mistakes.
B. establishing classroom routines where children learn from the teacher's direction.
C. respecting the teacher as the authority of the classroom.
D. teaching children that rewards come to only those who work hard.
3. "Guidance enables children to develop at their own rates and learn in their own ways" is a philosophy of
A. Haim Ginott
C. Arthur Combs
4. Which one of the following ideas is integral to the Head Start program?
A. Head Start focuses on the education of children in inner cities.
B. Head Start teachers provide regular progress reports to each child's parents.
C. Head Start encourages the involvement of parents at several levels.
D. Head Start focuses on the education of children in their own homes.
5. One of the foundations of developmentally appropriate practice as explained by the NAEYC is that
A. teachers must establish themselves as behavior models and authority figures.
B. teachers must respond to all children in the same way to be fair.
C. traditional educational practices are effective and should be continued.
D. discipline practices based on rewards and punishment are inappropriate.
6. One of Rudolph Dreikurs's contributions to the field of early childhood education is his belief that
A. children's impulses are necessary for their development.
End of exam
B. there's a difference between behavior and misbehavior.
C. all behavior is goal-directed.
D. the child is in a continual state of change.
7. Jean Piaget is known for which one of the following ideas about teachers and the children they teach?
A. Schools must address the self-concepts of learners.
B. Teachers need to be leaders, rather than bosses.
C. Respect for the individual is critical, and modeling of cooperation by adults is essential for learning.
D. Healthy development of the child results in an adult capability for interconnectedness with social groups.
8. Learning centers are examples of John Dewey's emphasis on
A. positive discipline.
B. goal-directed learning.
C. project-based methods.
D. democratic objectives.
9. What is the primary goal in the guidance approach?
10. Rudolph Dreikurs was influential in a movement towards
A. classroom interaction.
B. the development of the nursery school movement.
C. a system of rewards and punishment.
D. positive discipline.
FOUNDATIONS OF THE GUIDANCE APPROACH
1. The idea that mistaken behavior may be caused by a poor educational-program fit for the student is the idea behind
A. conflict management.
B. conflict-driven mistaken behavior.
C. strong-needs mistaken behavior.
D. institution-caused mistaken behavior.
2. A child who doesn't reach autonomy in Erikson's stages of development will most likely feel
A. separation anxiety.
D. shame and doubt.
3. In working with parents to educate children, teachers should remember that
A. teachers are the primary educators of the children.
B. parents are the primary educators of the children.
C. using technical terms to converse with parents helps establish professionalism.
D. parents look to teachers to educate their children because parents don't feel as qualified.
4. Which one of the following is false regarding stigmas and labels?
A. They reduce a student's ability to participate fully in the group.
B. The teacher comes to believe the "problem" is totally within the child.
C. They liberate students from traditional learning practices.
D. They greatly decrease a student's self-esteem.
5. Taking away another child's toy is evidence of a child's _______ aggression.
6. An appropriate practice to reduce stigma in children is
A. accepting our humaneness.
B. creating an encouraging classroom.
C. fixing the problem of the match.
D. liberation teaching.
7. Kounin says that teachers who are most effective have which one of the following skills?
A. A with-it-ness
B. A positive attitude
C. Mastered negotiation skills
D. Mastered conflict management skills
8. One of the children in your classroom refuses to come over for story time and wants to sit at her desk with her head down. She usually loves story time. Which of the following can you hypothesize as the motivation for this mistaken behavior?
A. She doesn't understand the directions.
B. She isn't feeling well.
C. She is expressing deep hostility.
D. She wants to see how you'll react.
9. According to Erik Erikson, which of the following life conflicts do preprimary-aged children (42 months to 6 years) face?
A. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
B. Industry versus inferiority
C. Initiative versus guilt
D. Trust versus mistrust
10. If a child in your classroom frequently displays strong needs mistaken behavior, what should you as the
teacher first look for as a factor contributing to this behavior?
A. Instances of superhero syndrome
B. Physical or emotional discomfort
C. The need to please others
D. The influence of peer pressure
11. Accepting all children as developing human beings despite cases of mistaken behavior is the backbone of
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. reducing stigmas.
C. goodness of fit.
D. liberation teaching.
12. Which of the following is one of the key discoveries from the contributions of brain research on development?
A. The brain develops physiologically through experiences in childhood.
B. Emotions don't have any impact on how a child develops.
C. Intelligence is fixed at birth.
D. Children can learn only during specific windows of opportunity.
13. Separation anxiety falls under which of Erikson's stages of development?
A. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
B. Trust vs. mistrust
C. Initiative vs. guilt
D. Industry vs. inferiority
14. When there's a poor child-program match, younger children frequently
A. grow up faster.
B. lapse into passivity.
C. cry more often.
15. If crisis management becomes necessary in your classroom, which one of the following techniques
could you use as part of the guidance tradition?
A. Talking to the child after he or she calms down to discuss ways of resolving problems in the future
B. Making the child apologize to the others
C. Restraining the child as a punishment until he or she calms down
D. Calling up the child's parents immediately and having them talk to their child
16. The "capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for
managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships" refers to
A. the importance of brain research on development.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. traditional intelligence.
D. multiple intelligences.
17. During the first five years of life, _______ percent of children attend some form of child care program.
18. According to Maslow, what are the two basic sets of needs for humans?
A. Love and respect
B. Safety and growth
C. Relationships and a sense of purpose
D. Industry and self-worth
19. The brain structure that processes a child's experiences into emotions is the
B. frontal lobe.
D. cerebral cortex.
20. When a child engages in mistaken behavior in an effort to please others, into which level of mistaken
behavior does this situation fall?
CREATING THE ENCOURAGING CLASSROOM
1. Which one of the following is true regarding the notion of contact talks?
A. There's no difference in a contact talk for a preschooler and one for a primary school student.
B. Contact talks are designed for a group of students.
C. Contact talks are regularly scheduled discussions with parents.
D. The main goal of a contact talk is to establish a means of communication with a child.
2. Which one of the following statements about class meetings is true?
A. Class meetings may also be called circle time or peace talks.
B. Class meetings involve parents in the process of deciding how the classroom should be run.
C. Class meetings give everyone in the class an equal chance to offer an opinion on how the class should be run.
D. Class meetings allow students to practice public speaking skills, as one student per meeting delivers a speech that he or she wrote.
3. Which one of the following is a good guideline to follow when having a parent-teacher conference?
A. Come up with an instant solution that you can use with the child.
B. Use technical terms and jargon to convey your professionalism.
C. Use reflective listening to make sure you understand the parent's thoughts.
D. Convey your role as an expert in early childhood education.
4. In Gartrell's opinion, which one of the following statements best describes an encouraging classroom?
A. It's a place children want to be even when they're sick.
B. It depends on parents to succeed.
C. It works only if the noise and traffic patterns are designed in an agreeable arrangement.
D. It allows children to successfully reach each stage of development.
5. Which one of the following sounds more like a classroom guideline than a rule?
A. No running in the classroom.
B. We work together to keep our classroom clean.
C. Don't talk with food in your mouth.
D. Don't chew gum in school.
6. If you want to include show-and-tell in your classroom, what is a good guideline to follow to keep
children interested and avoid focusing on material possessions?
A. Have each child bring in an object from home.
B. Schedule only one child to do show and tell per day.
C. Conduct an interview with the child to ask about the object.
D. Hold show and tell in small groups during center time.
7. Which one of the following statements best describes one of the dangers of educational accountability?
A. It forces teachers to be responsible for the education they're providing to the children.
B. It doesn't take into account any of the considerations of an encouraging classroom.
C. It's often confused with political accountability, which pushes the school to achieve with statistics such as test scores.
D. It puts all the responsibility of education on teachers' shoulders, removing the responsibility from parents.
8. You find yourself getting very frustrated at work lately. When you step back to take a break and refocus, you realize that you're doing too much and it's affecting you both in and out of the classroom. What are you probably doing?
A. Compulsively focusing on one issue and thus overwhelming yourself
B. Suffering from childism
C. Suffering from school anxiety
D. Overfunctioning by trying to be too many things to too many people
9. When communicating with parents, which one of the following guidelines should you keep in mind?
A. Establish yourself as the expert in the classroom, so they value your opinion.
B. Give advice to the parents on how to improve their child's behavior.
C. Use proper educational terms to frame the ideas you want to discuss.
D. Try to establish a collaborative system and welcome the family's suggestions.
10. Which of the following is true regarding encouragement when addressing a child?
A. Encouragement reinforces the successful completion of tasks.
B. Encouragement puts the focus on winning and success.
C. Encouragement must be given carefully, since it implies value judgments.
D. Encouragement empowers the child in his or her efforts.
11. If a child in your classroom doesn't want to get up when naptime is over, what should you do?
A. Call the parents and ask them to pick up their child because he or she is too exhausted.
B. Move the child to a quiet corner of the room and have an older child sit with the younger child.
C. Let the child sleep, but make sure he or she is OK.
D. Insist that the child wake up and join the others in an activity.
12. One of the dangers of educational accountability is that it's often confused with _______ accountability,
where schools are pushed to achieve at a cost to teachers and students.
13. Which one of the following is an effective technique for encouraging children to appreciate books?
A. Insist that children focus on the story and not focus on any other activity.
B. Avoid using different voices for different characters; it only confuses the children.
C. Allow children to read other books while you read to them.
D. Use books of all age groups and levels for variety.
14. Which one of the following statements accurately describes a logical consequence of mistaken behavior?
A. "You spilled your milk? That's OK. Let's clean it up together."
B. A child spills some milk. You realize he is too young to understand his actions, so you simply clean up the milk.
C. "Get some paper towels and clean up your mess, please."
D. Logical consequences are essentially the same thing as punishments.
15. A child in your class complains of a stomachache every week. How should you address the situation?
A. Ignore the child because you know she's making it up to get attention.
B. Use distraction techniques to get her involved in classroom activities.
C. Let her know you're listening to her, then look for a root cause at home or in the classroom.
D. Send her home and tell the parents she needs medical attention.
16. When you talk to a child, Anna, about how she hurt another child's feelings, you make sure you do so
without Anna feeling attacked. So you frame the issue within positive comments about how nicely she has
treated other children in the past. This technique is known as a/an
B. contact talk.
C. compliment sandwich.
D. problem solver.
17. The most important reason for having parent volunteers in the classroom, according to your textbook, is that it
A. shows parents how to teach their children in accordance with school policy.
B. gives the teacher a break so she can recharge her batteries.
C. allows the parent to see firsthand how their children function in the school environment.
D. encourages parents to be proactive in their children's education.
18. To encourage children to appreciate books, what is an effective technique you can use in your classroom?
A. Read the same books daily so children anticipate what's going to happen next.
B. Include an anticipatory set to introduce children to the story.
C. Include a buffer activity between books to keep children occupied.
D. Read to only one or two children at a time; reading to a small group is disruptive because children get bored.
19. Under which one of the following Myers and Maurer categories does the idea that children select materials according to their own interests fall?
20. Which one of the following is an appropriate practice in response to the traditional approach of ostracizing children who have engaged in mistaken behavior?
A. Center the group's activities around those that require "no one right answer."
B. Give a supportive evaluation of every child's work.
C. Accept all members as part of the group.
D. Increase the number of small groups.
SOLVING PROBLEMS IN THE ENCOURAGING CLASSROOM
1. The five-finger formula is an effective model of conflict management because it
A. teaches children that the teacher is the mediator in charge of handling the problem.
B. provides the essential features of most conflict management models in five easy-to-remember steps.
C. allows children to act out the problem and come up with a solution by using puppets as representations of themselves.
D. uses peace props as a basis to help children to solve problems peacefully.
2. Which one of the following ideas corresponds with comprehensive guidance?
A. Establishing strict consequences for mistaken behavior
B. Using parent-teacher mediation
C. Using child negotiation
D. Establishing an individual guidance plan
3. To reduce vulnerability in a particular child, teachers can practice liberation teaching, such as
A. excusing the child from activities he or she isn't capable of completing.
B. setting up consequences for anyone who bullies the child.
C. showing acceptance of the child as a worthwhile member of the group.
D. allowing the child to explain to the rest of the class how he or she feels.
4. When working as a team with parents to resolve mistaken behavior, which one of the following suggestions should you keep in mind?
A. Offer specific support service names or numbers for problem areas if you feel help is needed.
B. Label the child's behavior to give the parents a frame of reference they'll understand.
C. Trust your intuition—some family members will be impossible to communicate with.
D. Don't be afraid to use value judgments to describe a child's mistaken behavior.
5. Joey often acts bossy towards her classmates. As the teacher, you realize this is marginal mistaken behavior. What should you keep in mind as you decide how to react?
A. Whichever choice you make, remember to remain consistent from one day to the next.
B. Time-outs are the most effective way to respond to bossy behavior.
C. Bossy behavior is simply the beginning stages of leadership and should be encouraged as long as it doesn't grow out of control.
D. Bossy behavior will only grow worse with time; you must act quickly to stop Joey's bossiness by excluding her from activities until she learns to act as part of the group.
6. Which one of the following is an acceptable way to physically restrain a child?
A. Soft hand cuffs
B. Passive bear hug
C. "Bundling" in a blanket
D. Back-of-the-neck squeezing
7. Which one of the following is an example of a marginal mistaken behavior?
A. Two children are physically hitting each other in an argument over blocks.
B. One child steals another child's lunch money.
C. One child is acting bossy and ordering other children around.
D. One child deliberately pours water onto another's child's shirt.
8. Which of the following is one of the guidelines for using conflict management?
A. The teacher must intervene as a moral authority in the situation.
B. The teacher doesn't have to be a perfect mediator for children to learn about resolving problems effectively.
C. Children are in charge of resolving their own issues; let them work it out on their own.
D. The teacher must impose consequences if the problem is serious enough.
9. If Sandra reports misbehavior to a teacher simply to get another child into trouble, the teacher should
A. punish only Sandra for lying.
B. punish both children.
C. keep an open mind and monitor Sandra for other mistaken behavior.
D. thank Sandra for being a caring citizen.
10. Which one of the following is one of Carlsson-Paige's guidelines for teaching problem solving to young children?
A. Encourage children to engage in self-removal.
B. Encourage children to use pictures to represent their thoughts.
C. Give children a time-out to cool down before discussing the problem.
D. Encourage children to suggest their own solutions.
11. Which one of the following statements is true about bullying?
A. The victims of bullying don't differ between the sexes.
B. Children who bully others are never the victims of bullying.
C. Girls are just as likely to bully as boys, though in different ways.
D. Bullying has only a short-term effect on a victim's stress level.
12. When trying to understand what causes conflicts in young children, remember that
A. conflicts of privilege are abstract and don't apply to preschool children.
B. the younger the child, the more likely the conflict is about property.
C. when the conflict is over territory, the children are using manipulation.
D. most conflicts are about attention getting, not disagreement.
13. What is one possible factor that may make a child vulnerable to stigma?
A. Getting a B on a spelling test
B. Being the same religion as the majority of the class
C. Having a health condition
D. Having brothers or sisters who were stigmatized
14. What is one of the ways in which teachers can stigmatize children?
A. Incorporating an anti-bias education into the curriculum
B. Ignoring bullying in the classroom
C. Teaching children to value different points of views from different cultures
D. Showing preference on the basis of academic achievement
15. Which one of the following corresponds with Step 3 of Jones's theory on using body contact to reduce mistaken behavior?
A. Eye contact
B. Proximity with direct comment
C. Physical proximity
D. Eye contact with gestures
16. Which one of the following terms is an example of using a label and thus putting a child in a behavior category?
17. A good strategy teachers use to help some young children manage their emotions is
A. journal entries.
C. pillow fights.
18. Which of the following is a lifelong impact that direct violence can have on children?
A. It can make children cling to their parents.
B. It can trigger autism in children if violence occurs at a certain age.
C. It can foster ambiguity about sexuality.
D. It can cause children to avoid intimacy.
19. A child is angry and swinging at anyone who comes near her and becomes angrier when you try to get her to calm down. Which type of intervention technique should you use?
B. High-level mediation
C. Passive bear hug
D. Calling her parents to come pick her up
20. Which one of the following statements about reconciliation is true?
A. Children avoid apologizing because it's a weakness and they want to maintain power.
B. Teachers sometimes must make the children apologize.
C. Children know when they're ready to apologize.
D. Children bear grudges more than adults do.