1. In contrast to going without food, the human body can survive only about _____ days without water. (Points: 5)
2. Which of the following sources of water is most likely to contain contaminants? (Points: 5)
3. All of the following describe benefits of water acting as a solvent, EXCEPT: (Points: 5)
rainwater carries air pollutants to earth from the atmosphere.
water helps maintain a chemical balance in our bodies by carrying wastes away.
water in blood plasma transports nutrients to all our ograns.
rainwater dissolves and carries pesticides and fertilizers from farmland to streams and lakes.
4. Given that 1 ppb = 1 microgram/L and that the federal government's maximum allowable concentration of lead in drinking water is 15 ppb, how many micrograms of lead in 2L of water would meet this standard? (Points: 5)
5. How many grams of NACL would you add to 500 mL of water to create a 1.75M solution of NACL? (1M of NACL = 58.5 g)? (Points: 5)
6. Many of the unique properties of water are a consequence of the overall shape of its molecules as well as the: (Points: 5)
polarity of its bonds within each molecule.
small EN difference between oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
equal sharing of electrons between oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
absence of any hydrogen bonds.
7. Ionic compounds are formed when: (Points: 5)
elements from the same side of the periodic table exchange electrons.
metallic elements and nonmetallic elements exchange electrons.
the sum of the negative charges in both elements is greater than the sum of positive charges.
polyatomic ions are eliminated from the combination.
8. All of the following ionic compounds are soluble in water, EXCEPT: (Points: 5)
9. Which of the following best summarizes the solubility rule about the relationship between molecular structure and the formation of chemical compounds? (Points: 5)
Like dissolves like.
Electricity and water don't mix.
Elements on the same side of the periodic table exchange electrons.
Solvents move through membranes from higher solvent concentrations to lower.
10. The EPA has established a legal limit or __________ for the concentration of nitrates, benzene, and other contaminants to our nation's drinking water. (Points: 5)
maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG)
maximum contaminant level (MCL)
municipal sanitary standard (MSS)
national toxicity requirement (NTR)
11. "Hard water" contains high concentrations of dissolved __________ ions. (Points: 5)
cadmium and chromium
nitrate and lead
calcium and magnesium
sodium and chloride
12. Due to its prevalence in the environment and the severe and permanent neurological problems it causes, __________ is considered the most dangerous water contaminant. (Points: 5)
13. The oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are referred to as acids even though they contain no hydrogen ions because they: (Points: 5)
lose electrons after being combusted in car engines.
attract hydrogen atoms from methane gas found in the atmosphere.
produce hydrogen ions once they dissolve in water.
interact with ozone to produce acid anhydrides.
14. ______ includes wet forms such as rain, snow, fog, and cloud-like suspensions of microscopic water droplets often more acidic than acid rain. (Points: 5)
15. Even though there is relatively little sulfur dioxide in the smoggy air above Los Angeles, it still has quite acidic rain because: (Points: 5)
sulfur dioxide drifts down from Mt. St. Helen.
car engines are hot enough to create nitrogen monoxide from internal combustion.
its proximity to the Pacific Ocean allows the aqueous sulfur ions to be sucked into the atmosphere.
there are a number of coal-burning power plants in the city to introduce sulfur into the atmosphere.
16. A New York glass manufacturer was able to reduce NO emissions by 90% and energy consumption by 50% simply by: (Points: 5)
switching from air to oxygen in its large furnaces.
using electric power rather than propane in heating the glass.
reducing the burning of high-sulfur coal in its furnaces.
using silicon with a lower melting point to make glass.
17. __________ involves a chemical reaction of bacteria among certain plants that removes nitrogen from the air and converts it to ammonia. (Points: 5)
Biological nitrogen fixation
18. The __________ clause in the Clean Air Act was aimed at requiring utility companies to implement air quality control meansures in older dirty plants once they were "substantially modified." (Points: 5)
New Source Review
Cap and Trade
Clear Skies Initiative
National Acid Precipitation
19. Milk of Magnesia is said to have a pH of 10 which is considered to be: (Points: 5)
20. The __________ ion originally became incorporated from seawater into ancient rocks such as coal, and when the coal is burned, it releases compounds that become acidic in the atmosphere. (Points: 5)