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Psychopharmacology: Drugs, Brain, and Behavior

Customer Question

Please follow up with my 1/2/2012 accepted question.
Original Question URL:

Submitted: 5 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.

Hello Customer,

I have answered the 15 question quiz that you posted on 1/2/2012. Did you have a chance to view the answers?

Customer: replied 5 years ago.
Thank you for your response, but could you please make it a copy for answers all this questions , cause really I could not find thim.

Thank you,
Customer: replied 5 years ago.
Hello, Chris
ok , thank you I got all the answer.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.

Hello booosey,

I just got your reply. Thanks for the "accept." I hope you did well on the quiz!

Customer: replied 5 years ago.
Hello Chris,
Could you hepl me with this questions, please.
the subject is (Nurse research)
the e-textbook is id=_oLmrnlfTb4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Canadian+Essentials+of+Nursing+Research++By+Carmen+G+Loiselle,+Joanne+Profetto-McGrath,+Denise+F+Polit,+Cheryl+Tatano+Beck&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HlgST7vIOaXr0gHVv_mTAw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Canadian%20Essentials%20of%20Nursing%20Research%20%20By%20Carmen%20G%20Loiselle%2C%20Joanne%20Profetto-McGrath%2C%20Denise%20F%20Polit%2C%20Cheryl%20Tatano%20Beck&f=false

1- Deductive reasoning is the process of:
a. verifying assumptions that are part of our heritage.
b. developing specific predictions from general principles.
c. empirically testing observations that are made known through our sense organs.
d. forming generalizations from specific observations.

2- Which of the folioing limits the power of the traditional scientific approach to answer questions about human life?

a. the necessity of departing from traditional beliefs.
b. the difficulty of measuring psychosocial characteristics of humans.
c.the inability to control potential biases.
d. the shortage of threes about human behaviour.

3. Naturalistic qualitative research typically
a. involves deductive processes.
b. attempts to control the research context to better understand the natural of the phenomenon beige studied.
c. takes place in the field.
d. focuses on the idiosyncrasies of those being studied.

4- Quantitative and qualitative research do not have which of the following features in common?
a. a desire to gain an understanding of the true state of human affairs.
b. roots in nineteenth-century phenomenological thought.
c. reliance on external evidence collected through the senses.
d. utility to the nursing profession.

5- A descriptive questions that a qualitative researcher might ask is:
a. What are the dimensions of this phenomenon?
b. How frequently dose this phenomenon occur?
c. What is the average duration of this phenomenon?
d. How prevalent is this phenomenon?

6- A researcher is studying the effect of massage on the alleviation of pain in cancer patient. the study would be described as:
a. descriptive.
b. exploratory.
c. applied.
d. basic.

7- Which of the following terms is not typically used by quantitative researcher to refer to people who participate in a study?
a. informants.
b. respondents
c. study participants.
d. subjects.

8- The independent variable(s) in the research question, " Is job performance affected by salary or perceived job autonomy?" is (are):
a. job performance.
b. salary.
c. perceived job autonomy.
d. both salary and perceived job autonomy .

9- The independent variable in the research question, "What is the effect of noise levels on postoperative pain or blood pressure fluctuations in ICU patient?" is:
a. blood pressure.
b. ICU patients.
c. noise levels.
d. postoperative pain.

10- The overall plan developed by the researcher to option answers to the research questions is called the:
a. coding plan.
b. proposal .
c. problem statement.
d. research design.

11- a qualitative researcher typically makes a lot of decisions a bout interview questions and participant inclusion:

1- while reviewing the literature.
2- during the development of research proposal.
3-while the data collection is in progress.
4- after a pilot study has been conducted

12- in a quantitative research report, a review of prior research on the problem under study is most likely to be found in the :
1-Introductory section.
2-method section.
3-result section.
4-discussion section.

13- in which section would the following sentence most likely appear; The study sample consisted of 35 mother ---infant pairs from an inner-city neighborhood.
1-Introductory section.
2-method section.
3-result section.
4-discussion section.

14- when a finding is statistically significant, it;
1- suggests that the finding is very important.
2- has a high likelihood of being reliable and replicable.
3- proves that the researcher's hypothesis is correct.
4- indicates the need for changes in procedures.

15- in which section of a research report would the following sentence most likely appear; " patients who coughed were significantly more likely to have spontaneous dislodgment of small-bore nasogastric tube than patients who did not "
1-Introductory section.
2-method section.
3-result section.
4-discussion section.

16- in a quantitative research report, the thematic analysis of the data would be presented in the;

1-Introductory section.
2-method section.
3-result section.
4-discussion section.

17- Debriefing sessions are:
a. discussions with prospective participants before a study to obtain informed consent.
b. discussions with participants after a study to explain various aspects of the study and provide a forum for questioning.
c. discussions with a human subjects committee before a study to obtain permission to proceed.
d. none of the above.

18- If a researcher unobtrusively studies interactions among patients in a psychiatric hospital, which ethical principle may be violated?
a. beneficence.
b. freedom from harm.
c. self-determination.
d. all of the above.

19- The safeguard mechanism by which even the researcher cannot link the participant with the information provided is called:
a. confidentiality.
b. anonymity.
c. informed consent.
d. nonmaleficence.

20- In a qualitative study that involves multiple contacts between the researcher and study participants, the researcher may negotiate.
a. an informed consent.
b. a stipend.
c. a process consent.
d. a risk/benefit ratio.
21- A research hypothesis:
a. is a set of logically interrelated propositions.
b. is usually more general in scope than the problem statement.
c. predicts the nature of the relationship between two or more variables.
d. predicts the absence of relationship between two or more variables.

22- The following are all purposes of the research hypothesis except:
a. proving the validity of a theory.
b. extending human knowledge.
c. translating the research question.
d. providing direction to the research design.

23. A research hypothesis indicates the expected relationship between:
a. the functional and causal nature of the variables.
b. the statement of purpose and the research questions.
c. the independent variable and the dependent variable.
d. statical testing and the null hypothesis.

24- Hypotheses are:
a. essential to the conduct of respectable scientific inquiry.
b. needed only when there is an explicit theoretical framework.
c. useful in giving direction to quantitative studies.
d. not appropriate for most nursing research studies.

25- The hypotheses, " Women who jog regularly are more likely to have amenorrhea" than those who do not is:
a. null.
b. not correctly worded.
c. directionall.
d. nondirectional

26- The type of information in which the research is least interested when doing a literature review is:
a. how the variables of interest have been operationally defined in prior studies.
b. narrations of a particular author's impression of a given situation.
c. research results.
d. what research approaches have been used to study similar problems.

27- Which of the following sentences best conforms to the generally acceptable style of a research literature review?
a. It is known that students experience anxiety in taking a test.
b. Several studies have found that the Lamaze method of childbirth reduces the amount of pain medication required by mothers after delivery.
c. It is clear that motivations cannot be changed overnight.
d. Reinforcement is necessary to maintain positive behaviours.

28- which of the following is not a purpose of the research literature review for a nonresearcher?
a. to identify interventions that have potential for use evidence-based practice.
b. to identify a suitable research design.
c. to identify knowledge about a specific topic
d. to identify gaps in knowledge.

29- The overall purpose of theory is to:
a. explain relationship that exist among variables as well as the nature of those relationships.
b. make scientific findings meaningful and generalizable.
c. stimulate the generations of hypotheses that can be empirically tested .
d. summarize accumulated facts.

30- the power of theories lies in their ability to:
a. capture of human nature by richness of the operational difficulties associated with the variables.
b- minimize the number of words required to explain phenomena and, thereby, eliminate semantic problems.
c- prove conclusively that relationships exist among the phenomena studied.
d- specify the nature of the realationships that exist among phenomena.

31- The building blocks for theory are:
a. propositions .
b. relationships.
c. hypothesis
d. concepts.

32- The research methods decisions for a quantitative study can involve decisions with regard to all of the following except:

a. whether there will be a theoretical context.
b. whether there will be an intervention.
c. what types of comparisons will be made.
d. how many times will be collected.

33- One of the functions of a rigorous research design in a quantitative study is to have control over:
a. dependent variables.
b. independent variables.
c- factorial variables.
d- extraneous variables.

34- A true experiment requires all the following except:
a. control.
b. manipulation.
c. double-blind procedures.
d. randomization.

35- The use of a random numbers table for assigning subjects to group eliminates:
a. selection threat.
b. history threat.
c. attrition.
d. unnecessary manipulation.

36- Which of the following must be present in quasi-experimental research?
a. a comparison group.
b. manipulation of a variable.
c. matching of subjects.
d. randomization.

37. Which of the following research designs is weakest in terms of the researcher's ability to establish?
a. experimental.
b. ex post facto.
c. pre-experimental.
d. quasi-experimental

38-Which of the following designs involves the use of the same subjects at several points in time?
a. tend study.
b. cross-sectional study.
c. panel study
d. all of the above .

39- The threat to internal validity that occurs when concurrent external events or conditions affect one group more than another is known as:
a. maturation.
b. selection.
c. testing.
d. history.

40- In a nonequivalent control group design, the most serious threat to internal avidity is :
a. testing.
b. selection.
c. maturation.
d. history.

41- When subjects' behaviours are affected not by the treatment, but by their knowledge of participating in a study , the generalizability of the results are limited because of the influence of the:
a. treatment effect.
b. history.
c. Hawthorme effect.
d. selection threat.

42- The term emergent design in the context of a qualitative study indicates that the research design emerges:
a. during the conduct of a literature review.
b. while the researcher develops a conceptual framework.
c. during the process of constant comparisons.
d. while the researcher is collecting and analyzing data.

43. All of the following are issues that a qualitative research attends to in planning a study except:
a. selecting a site.
b. determining how best to gain entree in key settings.
c. determining the sample size.
d. determining the maximum amount of time available for field work.

44- Which of the following design features can apply to both a qualitative and quantitative study?
a. manipulation of the independent variable.
b. cross-sectional or longitudinal data collection.
c. control over extraneous variable.
d. random assignment of study participants.

45- The research tradition known as ethnomethodology has its roots in the discipline of:
a. anthropology.
b. philosophy.
c. psychology.
d. sociology.

46- A researcher gets on an elevator and, instead of facing forward, faces back ward toward other elevator passengers. This would be an example of:

a. an ethnographer's attempt to gain on emic perspective.
b. a phenomenologist's effort to appreciate the essence of what the passengers are experiencing .
c. an ethnomethodologist's attempt to understand the social expectations regarding behaviour in an elevator.
d. a discourse analyst's attempt to listen to people's conversation on an elevator.

47- Which of the following approaches involves the use of a procedure known as constant comparison?

a. grounded theory.
b. ethnography.
c. phenomenology.
d. ethology.

48- " What is the essence of men's experiences of chemotherapy treatment for prostate cancer?" is an example of research question within which of the following traditions?

a. grounded theory.
b. ethnography.
c. phenomenology.
d. ethology.

49- The use of both qualitative and quantitative and quantitative data in a study or cluster of studies serves the important purpose of:

a. providing researchers with different skills and an opportunity to collaborate.
b. enhancing the validity of the study.
c. allowing research subjects to select whether they prefer an unstructured or structured method of responding.
d. enhancing the likelihood that the study will published.

50- When the qualitative and quantitative data from a single study are inconsistent with one another , this provides:
a. evidence that the finding are not trustworthy.
b. an opportunity to push the line of inquiry on a topic further.
c. a situation requiring one type of data or the other be ignored.
d. an excellent publication opportunity.

51- Sampling may be defined as as the;
a. identification of the set of element used for selecting study participants .
b. process of selecting a subset of the population to represent the entire population.
c. aggregation of study participants who meet a designated set of criteria for inclusion in the study participants who meet a designated set of criteria for inclusion in the study.
d. technique used to ensure that every element in the population has an equal chance of being included in the study.

52. Bias in a sample for a quantitative study refers to:
a. lack of heterogeneity in the population on the attribute of interest.
b. sample selection in nonprobability-type samples.
c. the margin of error in the data obtained from samples.
d. systematic over- or underrepresentation on the attribute of interest vis-a-vis the population.

53- Nonprobability sampling includes following except:
a. convenience sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. purposive sampling>
d. quota sampling.

54- Of the following, the type of sampling design that would be especially likely to yield a representative sample is:
a. systematic.
b. convenience.
c. purposive.
d. quota .

55- Of the following types of sample, which one is considered to be the weakest for quantitative studies?
a. convenience.
b. quota.
c. purposive.
d. systematic.

56- In a qualitative study , sample size decisions are often guided by the principle of:
a. emergent theory.
b. data saturation .
c. representativeness of information.
d. sample diversity.

57. Questionnaires have the advantage of:
a. offering the possibility of anonymity.
b. having high response rates.
c. eliminating response set biases.
d. being suitable for all types of respondents.

58. On a five-point likert scale , a person who neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement would be secured as:

a. 0.
b. 1.
c. 3.
d. 5.

59. A method used to measure subjective experiences such as pain and fatigue is:

a. q- sorts.
b. vignettes.
c. visual analog scales.
d. projective techniques .

60. In participant observation, data are collected in the form of ;
a. checklists.
b. field notes.
c. rating scales.
d. questionnaires.

61. If a researcher studying adolescent suicide interviewed parents and siblings independently, the method would be referred to as:
a. data triangulation.
b. investigator triangulation.
c. theory triangulation.
d. method triangulation.

62- A member check involves reviewing data with:
a. an externat auditor.
b. a peer of the researcher.
c. a study participant.
d. a research assistant.

63- The criterion that refers to the neutrality of qualitative data is:
a. credibility.
b. transferability.
c. dependability.
d. confirmability.

64- The use of prolonged engagement in the collection of qualitative data enhances which of the following?
a. credibility of the data.
b. transferability of the data.
c. dependability of the data.
d. confirmability of the data.

65- An overall assessment of the adequacy of a structured self-report or observational instrument is referred to as:
a. a triangulation.
b. a psychometric evaluation.
c. a construct validation.
d. am inquiry.

66- The level of measurement that classifies and ranks objects in terms of the degree to which they possess the attribute of interest is:
a. nominal.
b. ordinal.
c. interval.
d. ratio.

67- Religious affiliation is measured on the:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval.
d. ratio.

68. The use of inferential statistics permits the researcher to:

a. to draw conclusions about based on information gathered from a sample.
b. to describe information obtained from empirical observation.
c. to interpret descriptive statistics.
d. none of the above.significance

69. For which of the following levels of significance is the risk of making a Type II error greatest?

a. 10.
b. 05.
c. 01.
d. 001.

70. In analysis of covariance, a covariate is generally:

a. an independent variable.
b. the dependent variable.
c. either an independent or dependent variable.
d. an extraneous variable.

71. The first major step that a researcher must undertake in a qualitative analysis is:

a. a search for major themes.
b. entering information into files.
c. the use of quasi-statistics.
d. developing a system for organizing and indexing the data.

72. Steps generally employed in the analysis of qualitative data include all of the following except:

a. testing hypotheses.
b. seating for themes.
c. validating themes.
d. developing a coding scheme.

73. The major purpose of a research critique is to assess:

a. the adequacies a research study.
b. the inadequacies of research study .
c. both of the above .
d. neither of the above.

74- The person who critiques a published research report should strive:
a. to withhold overly critical comments that would discourage the researcher.
b. to be as succinct as possible.
c. to judge the merits of the study based on the researcher's background.
d. to remain as objective as possible.

75- All the following questions would be appropriate to ask in evaluating both qualitative or quantitative studies except:
a. Is there a clearly articulated problem statement?
b. Are the reference cited in the literature review current and appropriate?
c. Are extraneous variables successfully controlled ?
d. Are clinical implications discussed?

plesae help me ASAP
cuase you are me best

thank you so much
Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.

Hello Customer,

What is your deadline to for this exam?

Customer: replied 5 years ago.
My deadline will be tomorrow.
Is that will be ok for you?

Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.
I'm sorry boosey, but I have a couple of other assignment to finish tomorrow. Seventy-five questions is too much to ask on short notice. Consider breaking this exam up into groups of 10-15 questions and making separate posts of each, open to all Homework experts. I believe this would be your best bet to get assistance with this exam.
Customer: replied 5 years ago.
I Can give you two dayes ,but please I need your help cause you are my best, ***** ***** trust your answers alwayes .please do it your best to help me. I will give to you extra bonus for that.
Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.
I see that you have broken this exam up into several separate posts, as suggested. You should better be able to get assistance in this manner. Good luck on this exam!
Customer: replied 5 years ago.
hello chris,
yes, I have broken this exam up into several separate posts, as you suggested.but no one answer me , and i did that cuse you told me that, Also I still waiting you to answers those questions for me.

Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.

Hello Customer,

Unfortunately, after looking over these questions, I don't have the expertise in research design to answer these. Your questions have been moved to the Homework category

Hopefully, you can get some answers there.

Customer: replied 5 years ago.

Hello Chris,

I have questions that I need your answere it for me, and you can take three days to finish it .


Attachment: 2012-02-08_011931_mmm.docx

, I will pay for your work as you want.

Thank you so much , and please response my message when you get it, to confirm me that you received this message already, and if is there anything.

Good luck,

Expert:  Chris M. replied 5 years ago.

Hello Customer,

Sorry, I was working on another question and just got your reply. Again, I would suggest that you break these questions up into several posts, such as one page per post, open to all Homework experts.