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asciandwildlifebio, Graduate Student
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Experience:  M.S. Bio, B.S. in Animal Science and Wildlife Biology. Comprehensive Spanish Written and Oral Skills
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Post a 300- to 500-word response to the following o

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Post a 300- to 500-word response to the following: o How did Mendel’s approach to answering scientific questions differ from that of his contemporaries? o How did his novel approach contribute to his success in describing how traits are inherited? o What advantages did he enjoy by choosing to study the garden pea? o Piecing It Together on p. 78 of the text describes the six major concluding principles Mendel hypothesized from his work. Describe three of them. Due Nov 4
Submitted: 5 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  asciandwildlifebio replied 5 years ago.
Hello! Please post page 78! Thank you.
Customer: replied 5 years ago.

PG 78 CHAPTER 3 Mendelian Genetics: How Are Traits Inherited?

When Mendel crossed pea plants, he counted thousands of offspring. Because there

were so many, the ratios of the different phenotypes were very close to the theoretical

values that his laws of segregation and independent assortment predicted. They were

close, but never exactly right on.

Half Is Enough The examples we have considered thus far apply to organisms, like humans,

that spend most of their life history carrying two alleles for each gene. Only the gametes carry

single alleles. Some organisms, however, such as algae and mosses, spend much of their lives

carrying only a single copy of each gene. How do Mendel's laws apply to these creatures?

Piecing It Together

Mendel's principles, derived from his experiments with peas, are true of all sexually

reproducing organisms-those that produce gametes that join at fertilization. Here, we

summarize Mendel's conclusions about the inheritance of traits, as well as some of the

insights that have emerged from his work:

1. Hereditary characteristics are passed from parent to offspring as units or particles.

We refer to the basic unit of inheritance for a given trait as a gene. The different

forms of a gene are called alleles. Mendel's factors correspond to alleles.

2. Individuals carry two alleles for every gene.The two alleles for a given trait may be

identical, in which case the individual is said to be homozygous for that trait. Alternatively,

the two alleles may differ, and hence, the individual is said to be heterozygous

for that trait.

3. Prior to reproduction, pairs of alleles are separated so that specialized reproductive

cells called gametes contain only one allele from each pair. At fertilization, gametes

fuse, each contributing one allele for each trait to the new offspring.

4. Some genes show dominance; that is, heterozygous individuals may express only

one allele-the dominant allele-while the other, the recessive allele, is masked.

Thus, the phenotype-the traits that are expressed in an individual-may not always

reveal the genotype, or the full complement of alleles that the individual carries.

Recessive alleles remain hidden in the genes.

5. Mendel's law of segregation states that heterozygous parents are equally likely to

pass either of their two alleles on to their offspring. In other words, gametes combine

at fertilization without regard to which alleles they carry. Because the alleles that an

individual inherits are purely a matter of chance, the rules of probability can be used

to determine the likelihood that any given allele is passed on.The Punnett square is

a tool that illustrates the law of segregation.

6. Mendel's law of independent assortment applies when two or more genes are

considered simultaneously. It states that the alleles of one gene are passed to offspring

independently of the alleles for other genes.The Punnett square illustrates this law,

as well.

3-2 Why Aren't Members of the Same Species Identical?

Like begets like.When pea plants are crossed, the resulting offspring are never roses or

geraniums: They are always peas.When dogs are bred, the result is puppies, and when

racehorses are bred, inevitably they bear foals. Each species is a particular combination

Customer: replied 5 years ago.
will you have this today ? before 5 ?
Expert:  asciandwildlifebio replied 5 years ago.
Yes, you will have it on about 30 minutes.
Expert:  asciandwildlifebio replied 5 years ago.

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Customer: replied 5 years ago.
Thank you !
Expert:  asciandwildlifebio replied 5 years ago.
You are welcome!