Anatomy and physiology 1 1. A friend is concerned because…
Anatomy and physiology 1 1. A...
Anatomy and physiology 1
1. A friend is concerned because her doctor told her she would be more likely to lose weight by eating regularly and not skipping meals. However, when she eats breakfast, she is always hungry long before lunchtime, when she skips breakfast; sometimes she is not even hungry for lunch. You have just learned that skipping a meal slows the body’s metabolic rate. If metabolic rate is slowed, weight loss is slowed. Therefore, you tell her that she is more likely to lose weight by eating four to six small healthy meals a day instead of eating only one large meal. In other words, each time your friend skips a meal (stimulus), the metabolic rate slows down (response), and the individual is less hungry (stimulus is magnified). This case study exemplifies homeostasis by:
b. Negative feedback
d. Positive feedback.
2. Which statement below best supports the theory that all human cells contain a nucleus?
a. The genetic code (DNA) is stored in the nucleus.
b. Centrioles required for DNA cell division are stored in the nucleus.
c. Ribosomes necessary for translation of DNA are stored in the nucleus.
d. Cellular division and growth occurs in the nucleus.
3. Which answer below lists the four main tissue types in the human body?
a. Squamous, columnar, stratified, cuboidal
b. Connective, adipose, epithelial, glandular
c. Connective, adipose, epithelial, nervous
d. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
4. Which one of the statements below best describes the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
a. The endocrine system produces changes in the body’s internal environment that are long-term, while the nervous system produces more short-term changes.
b. The nervous system is involved in the regulation and coordination of the body’s internal environment, while the endocrine system is not
c. The nervous system is composed of ductless glands whose secretions regulate the cellular activities of other organ systems.
d. The endocrine system and the nervous system work completely independently of one another.
5. Three most common ways that pathogens are spread include__________, and _______________ transmission.
a. Person-to-person: genetic: vector
b. Person-to-person; environmental; vector
c. Person-to-person; environmental; genetic
d. Genetic; environmental; vector
6. Which one of the following proteins coats the surface of the skin and forms the basic structure of the hair and nails?
7. Bone is an example of _________ and is comprised mainly of _________ and ___________.
a. An organ; calcium; cartilage fibers
b. An organ; calcium; collagen fibers
c. Supporting connective tissue; calcium; collagen fibers
d. Supporting connective tissue; calcium; and cartilage fibers
8. Which one of the following movements is n example of an isometric contraction of the masseter muscles?
a. Sticking out your tongue
b. Clenching your teeth
9. _________ are part of the afferent division of the nervous system, while
_________ are part of the efferent division.
a. Sensory neurons; interneurons
b. Interneurons; motor neurons
c. Sensory neurons; motor neurons
d. Motor neurons; sensory neurons
10. The ____________ lobe of the brain is the center of visual association; the __________ lobe is responsible for auditory association; the ___________ lobe controls sensory association; and the ________ lobe maintains motor association.
a. Frontal; temporal; parietal; occipital
b. Frontal; parietal; temporal; occipital
c. Occipital; temporal; parietal; frontal
d. Occipital; temporal; frontal; parietal
Anatomy physiology II
1. A 45-year-old female has thyroid disease. Because specific properties of the thyroid gland classify it as an endocrime organ, you conclude that this disease is an endocrine disease. Which answer below best describes the properties that classify the thyroid as an endocrine gland?
a. The thyroid secretes hormone into the lymph, is a ductless organ, and its function affects target cells.
b. The thyroid secretes neurotransmitters into the blood, has secretory ducts, and its function affects target cells.
c. The thyroid secretes hormone into the blood, is a ductless organ, and its function affects target cells.
d. The thyroid secretes neurotransmitters into the lymph, is a ductless organ, and it regulates its own function.
2. Which answer below best describes your blood?
a. It is a supportive connective tissue consisting of 45% lymph and 55% plasma.
b. It is a fluid connective tissue consisting of 5% lymph and 95% plasma
c. It is a supportive connective consisting of 45% formed elements and 55% plasma.
d. It is a fluid connective tissue consisting of 45% formed elements and 55% plasma
3. A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension. This diagnosis means that the blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation is high. His other blood pressure (systemic) is normal. This diagnosis might indicate that the might indicate that the blood pressure could be elevated in the:
c. Hepatic-portal system.
4. The normal heartbeat is precisely regulated by the electrical impulses generated
From the heart’s conducting cells. The precision of these electrical impulses ensures that blood flows through the heart in the right direction, at the proper time. Which answer below accurately describes the proper sequence of the electrical impulses and the proper direction of blood flow through the heart?
a. Blood enters the left from the inferior vena cava; the sinoatrial (SA) node “fires.: causing left atrial contraction; blood flows into the right ventricle; the atrioventricular (AV) bide fires causing right ventricular contraction blood is then
b. Blood enters the right atrium from the inferior vena cava; the SA node ‘fires,” causing contraction of the right ventricle; blood is then pushed into the left atrium; the AV node “fires” causing contraction of the left atrium blood flows into the left
c. Blood simultaneously enters the right atrium from the inferior vena cava, and the left atrium from the pulmonary veins; the SA node “fires,” causing simultaneous contraction of both atria blood flows into the right and left ventricles.
d. Blood simultaneously enters the right atrium from the inferior vena cava and the left atrium from the aorta; the AV node “fires, “causing simultaneous atrial contraction blood enters the right and left ventricles simultaneously the SA node.
5. A 31-year-old female contracted HIV(human immunodeficiency virus) 10 years ago, and is now developing signs of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Ordinarily harmless infections are deadly to her. which answer below best explains how her antibody-response (B cell immunity) became weakened even though HIV primarily infects cells involved in T cell immunity?
A. HIV destroys cytotoxic T cells, and cytotoxic T cells play a central role in stimulating antibody production.
B. HIV causes malfunction of memory T cells, and memory T cells stimulate B cells to produce autoantibodies.
C. HIV destroys helper T cells, and helper T calls play a central role in stimulating antibody production.
D. HIV causes malfunction of cytotoxic T cells, and cytotoxic T cells suppress B cell immunity.
6. Which answer below includes all the phases of respiration?
a. Breathing, pulmonary ventilation, gas transport, and cellular respiration
b. Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal
c. inhalation, external respiration, gas transport, andexhalation
d. Breathing, pulmonary ventilation, internal respiration, andexternal respiration
7. Each cell in our body requires energy for its maintenance, growth, and function. ________________ provide the main source of energy for cells.
8. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney and what purpose does it serve?
a. The Bowman’s capsule; formation of filtrate and reabsorption of nutrients
b. The nephron; formation of filtrate and conversion of filtrate to urine
c. The glomerulus; formation of filtrate and secretion of waste
d. The bladder; storage and excretion of urine
9. Plasma is an example of ______________ fluid.
10. Which contraceptive method has the highest failure rate?
a. The rhythm method
b. The birth control pill
d. The use of condoms
1. A(N) ______________ is a jpersonal representative named by the court ot perform as the executor would, in instances in which the deceased person has not left a will.
2. The law concerned with the unenforceable obligations that people have to one another is known as __________ law.
3. A private wrong that causes injury to physical well-being, property, or reputation of another person is called a (n):
4. The law allows for a certain amount of “sales talk,” or puffing, that is not considered as:
a. Undue influence.
5. All but one of the following elements is required of an enforceable contract. The exception is:
a. Offer and acceptance.
b. Mutual agreement.
d. Malafide intention.
6. The document that lists the general powers of a corporation is called the:
a. Memorandum of hierarchy.
b. Memorandum of association
c. Articles of entrepreneurship.
d. Articles of incorporation.
7. The uniform commercial code provides that when a merchant sells goods, he or she warrants that the goods will comply with the following requirements, EXCEPT:
a. To pass without objection in the trade under the contract description.
b. Being unfit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are sold.
c. Conforming with the promises or statements of fact made on the container or label.
d. Be adequately contained, packaged, and labeled as the agreement may require.
8. Patents, rights to drill for oil on someone’s land, and copyrights of creative works such s books are _______________ possessions.
9. The securities exchange act of 1934 covers the trading of these same securitiesin the __________ market, defined as the place where one member of the public cells securities to another member of the public.
10. All of the following are the characteristics that become the bases of product liability claims against manufacturers and sellers, except:
a. Product flaw.
b. Failure to warn.
d. Design defect.
Principles of management
1. Riya, a manager, calls a meeting of her subordinates to tell them about the new benefits package. Riya is performing the ____________ role.
2. A manager attempting to decide what decision will result in the individual’s best long-term interests is engaged in the ___________ approach.
3. Namibia has a law that prohibits foreign companies from ownership of firms within the country. In order to have a presence in that country a company may engage in a __________ with an existing company in Namibia.
b. Strategic alliance
c. Joint venture
d. Greenfield venture
4. When an organization plans effectively, it plans in three phases. Starting with the one that should come first, what is the correct order of these phases?
a. Operational, tactical, strategic
b. Tactical, operational, strategic
c. Tactical, strategic, operational
d. Strategic, tactical, operational
5. Aleha is very social and likes being around others, she is very supportive of her subordinates and receptive to their ideas. She is constantly out of her office interacting with other people. Everyone knows that she can always be counted on to pitch in when help is asked. Aleha is probably ________ in her decision-making style.
6. XYZ hospital has a chief of medical services, a Direct of Administrative services, and a Director of Outpatient services. XYZ has a _______________ structure.
7. Fernando, a manager in a retail store, is changing the work schedule of his long-term employees for the holiday season. He is using the same basic schedule as he did last year. Fernando should expect that his employees will be:
a. Terribly upset and quit.
b. Terribly upset but not quit.
c. Moderately upset.
d. Hardly upset, or not upset at all.
8. Maslow’s levels of needs, in order from basic to highest level, are:
a. Physiological, safety, esteem belongingness, and self-actualization.
b. Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
c. Self-actualization, esteem, belongingness safety, and physiological.
d. Self-actualization, belongingness, esteem safety, and physiological.
9. Your boss expects you to stay late to cover the workload of a coworker who is out sick, but you are supposed to help your mother with some work on her house tonight. You are suffering from:
a. Role over load.
b. Role conflict.
c. Role ambiguity.
d. Learned helplessness.
10. An announcement of the company-sponsored picnic travels from the employees’ social committee to the other employees through email. This communication is ______ and ________.
a. Horizontal; informal
b. External; informal
c. Vertical; informal
d. External; formal