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Sodalities first appear at which societal level?

1. A group of people...

1. A group of people who have a similar relationship to the mechanisms of wealth, power, and social status is termed a(n):
A. Class.
B. Stratified group.
C. Caste.
D. Age set.

2. According to Elman Service, the basic types of political structure include:
A. Bands, tribes, and kingdoms.
B. Bands, tribes, and states.
C. Bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.
D. Bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and nations.

3. Band organization is found among which types of societies?
A. Horticultural and pastoral
B. Foraging
C. Intensive agricultural
D. State

4. Which term has been used to designate a stage in human evolution, as a catchall term for "primitive" people, and as a political system of non-state societies?
A. Band
B. Chiefdom
C. Tribe
D. Hunter-gatherer

5. Chiefdoms differ from tribes primarily as a result of the:
A. Environments they inhabit.
B. Accumulation of goods.
C. Hereditary office of chief.
D. Domestic mode of production.

6. Sodalities first appear at which societal level?
A. Band.
B. Tribe.
C. Chiefdom.
D. Nation.

7. In a band society, who would most likely be responsible for punishing a murderer?
A. Sodality member
B. Judge
C. Friend of the victim
D. Close kin member

8. Supernatural connections to political leadership are most closely associated with:
A. Bands.
B. Tribes.
C. Chiefdoms.
D. States.

9. Rank societies are those where individuals gain prestige and wealth by using:
A. Coercive power.
B. Persuasive power.
C. Coercive authority.
D. Simple authority.

10. It is often difficult to identify who the leader is in a foraging society because:
A. You can't tell who is the oldest person.
B. The leader will not wear a leadership insignia or live in special housing.
C. Leadership varies depending on what types of decisions need to be made.
D. Outward indicators of wealth are difficult to observe.

11. Polytheistic belief systems can be defined as belief systems:
A. Consisting of one all-powerful god or goddess.
B. Where special knowledge is held by shamans.
C. Where both supernatural forces and beings are found.
D. Consisting of multiple gods or goddesses.

12. Which statement best describes the difference between magic and religion?
A. Religion contains many ceremonies, whereas magic does not.
B. Religion gives people a euphoric feeling, whereas magic does not.
C. Magic is the belief of aboriginal populations, whereas religion is the belief of advanced cultures.
D. Magic deals primarily with supernatural forces, whereas religion deals primarily with supernatural beings.

13. A part-time practitioner who has special abilities for handling supernatural forces is called a:
A. Priest.
B. Shaman.
C. Mana.
D. Churinga.

14. The term "mana" is best defined as:
A. Aa member of a hierarchy of priests.
B. The implements used in magical ceremonies.
C. A supernatural impersonal force.
D. A ritual of intensification.

15. The socially disruptive behavior a person exhibits may be attributed to the action of a:
A. Trickster.
B. Soul.
C. Goddess.
D. Demon.

16. Anthropological research has demonstrated that supernatural beings and forces exist in what percentage of the world's cultures?
A. 50 percent
B. 80 percent
C. 95 percent
D. 100 percent

17. A rite of passage will usually involve what steps?
A. Withdrawal, initiation, and incorporation
B. Separation, initiation, and incorporation
C. Separation, transition, and incorporation
D. Withdrawal, transition, and incorporation

18. In most cultures around the world, a witch would likely:
A. Deny being a witch.
B. Also be a ghost.
C. Readily admit to being a witch.
D. Change form to avoid detection.

19. Which of the following is a rite of intensification?
A. An American family celebrating the Fourth of July with a party
B. A couple celebrating fifty years of marriage
C. Your child's sixteenth birthday party
D. The celebration of an employee's retirement

20. Saying grace or any prayer before every meal is an example of what supernatural function?
A. Supportive function
B. Educational function
C. Revitalizing function
D. Disciplining function

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9/20/2011
Chris M.
Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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1. A. Class.

2. C. Bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.

3. B. Foraging

4. C. Tribe

5. B. Accumulation of goods.

6. B. Tribe.

7. D. Close kin member

8. C. Chiefdoms.

9. D. Simple authority.

10. B. The leader will not wear a leadership insignia or live in special housing.

11. D. Consisting of multiple gods or goddesses.

12. D. Magic deals primarily with supernatural forces, whereas religion deals primarily with supernatural beings.

13. B. Shaman.

14. C. A supernatural impersonal force.

15. D. Demon.

16. D. 100 percent

17. C. Separation, transition, and incorporation

18. A. Deny being a witch.

19. B. A couple celebrating fifty years of marriage

20. D. Disciplining function

Hope this helps!

Chris M.
Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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Customer reply replied 6 years ago

1. The imitative magic hypothesis to explain Upper Paleolithic cave art states that magic that is performed on:
A. A picture of an animal can influence the living animal.
B. A hoof print of the animal can influence the living animal.
C. A sample of an animal's hair can influence other similar animals.
D. Drawings on the body of an animal can influence its health.

2. The Venus of Willendorf is an example of:
A. Parietal art.
B. Mobile art.
C. A fetish figure.
D. A poltergeist.

3. The bison at Altamira are very natural in appearance and attest to the competence of the artists in the use of what is labeled:
A. Expressionism.
B. Paint.
C. Tone.
D. Abstraction.

4. The oldest musical instruments found in the archaeological record are:
A. Flutes.
B. Drums.
C. Cymbals.
D. Maracas.

5. Recent interest in the functions of Upper Palaeolithic cave art has focused on art:
A. For education.
B. For use in ceremonies.
C. For imitative magic.
D. As symbols.

6. The red deer that is on the ceiling at Altamira is significant because this painting shows:
A. Naturalism.
B. Realism.
C. Abstraction.
D. Distortion.

7. Which Upper Paleolithic cave has been called the Sistine Chapel of prehistory art?
A. Grotto Chauvet
B. Altamira
C. Lascaux
D. La Marche

8. The Cuna of San Blas, Panama, express themselves through the art of molas, which are:
A. Colorful woven textiles made from alpaca wool.
B. Colorful multi-layered appliqués on blouses.
C. Carved wooden panels depicting tribal history.
D. Carved mush paddles with geometric designs.

9. One major criticism of the unilineal evolutionists' models of cultural evolution is that the models:
A. Were based on incorrect data.
B. Were developed by colonial governments.
C. Were developed to support missionary work.
D. Were based on very little ethnographic data.

10. Programs of planned change often do not have the desired effect because of:
A. Planners' failure to adequately supply technology.
B. Planners' failure to employ technical aid experts to assess the plan.
C. Unethical practices on the part of anthropologists.
D. Planners' failure to understand the impact of cultural issues on change.

11. Franz Boas was responsible for developing the approach that has come to be known as:
A. Historical particularism.
B. Unilineal evolutionism.
C. Functionalism.
D. Diffusionism.

12. The three categories that are outlined in his analysis of barriers to culture change were:
A. Cultural barriers, social barriers, and psychological barriers.
B. Culture structure barriers, technological barriers, and fatalistic barriers.
C. Technological barriers, economic barriers, and cultural barriers.
D. Economic barriers, social barriers, and cultural barriers.

13. The borrowing that takes place between cultures as a result of prolonged contact is termed:
A. Acculturation.
B. Enculturation.
C. Invention.
D. Hegemony.

14. The approach that examines the adaptations made by rural peoples as they move into cities is called:
A. Urbanization studies.
B. Microeconomic studies.
C. Urban poverty studies.
D. Acculturation studies.

15. Though their health is at risk, most North Americans fail to get regular exercise and improve their diets. Which of Foster's barriers to change applies to this situation?
A. Norms of modesty
B. Tradition
C. Relative values
D. Miscommunication

16. Workers in the area of planned culture change have noted that the most important stimulant or motivator of change is:
A. Desire for economic gain.
B. Appeals to nationalism.
C. Competition.
D. Cultural ethnocentrism.

17. The major source of change for any culture is:
A. Innovation.
B. Invention.
C. Directed change programs.
D. Diffusion.

18. Comparative data from other cultures and non-human primate studies suggest that human children should be weaned between _____ and _____ years of age.
A. 1.5 and 2
B. 2 and 3
C. 2.5 and 4
D. 2.5 and 7

19. When anthropologists study globalization, the focus is most commonly on:
A. Individuals and cultural process.
B. Individuals and political process.
C. Nation-states and economic processes.
D. Nation-states and social processes.

20. The ideological domination by one cultural group over another through institutions, bureaucracy, education - and sometimes force - is termed:
A. Colonialism.
B. Hegemony.
C. Imperialism.
D. Globalization.

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