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1. A patient has a PCO2 of 56 mm Hg. Based on this information,
1. A patient has a PCO2 of 56 mm Hg. Based on this information, what can be concluded? (Points : 1)
A) The patient is hyperventilating.
B) The patient is hypoventilating.
C) The patient’s breathing rate is fast.
D) The patient’s VT is low.
2. Regional factors affecting the distribution of gas in the normal lung result in which of the following? (Points : 1)
A) More ventilation goes to the apexes and lung periphery.
B) More ventilation goes to the apexes and lung core.
C) More ventilation goes to the bases and lung core.
D) More ventilation goes to the bases and lung periphery.
3. In clinical practice measuring the physiologic dead space ventilation is achieved by using which formula? (Points : 1)
A) Bernoulli’s equation
B) Modified Bohr equation
C) Modified Shunt equation
D) Reynold’s equation
4. What is the primary function of the lungs? (Points : 1)
A) Convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II
B) Filter pulmonary blood
C) Gas exchange
D) Remove carbon monoxide (CO)
5. Total lung–thorax compliance in normal subjects is about what level? (Points : 1)
A) 0.1 L/cm H2O
B) 0.2 L/cm H2O
C) 1.0 L/cm H2O
D) 2.0 L/cm H2O
6. Which is the correct formula to calculate the alveolar minute ventilation of a spontaneously breathing subject? (Points : 1)
A) f x VDS/VT
B) f x VT
C) f x (VT – VDSphys)
D) f x (VT + VDSphys)
7. Which of the following statements about Raw is true? (Points : 1)
A) The greater the lung volume, the greater is the Raw.
B) The greater the lung volume, the less is the Raw.
C) As lung volume decreases toward RV, the Raw drops.
D) As lung volume increases toward TLC, the Raw rises.
8. A lung that loses elastic fibers (as in emphysema) would exhibit which of the following characteristics? (Points : 1)
A) Decreased airways resistance
B) Decreased pulmonary vascular resistance
C) Increased airway resistance
D) Increased pulmonary compliance
9. Given a constant carbon dioxide production, how will changing the level of VA affect the PaCO2? (Points : 1)
A) A decrease in VA will decrease PaCO2.
B) An increase in VA will decrease PaCO2.
C) An increase in VA will increase PaCO2.
D) PaCO2 is unaffected by changes in VA.
10. Normal Raw is approximately which of the following? (Points : 1)
A) 0.1 to 0.2 cm H2O/L/sec
B) 0.5 to 2.5 cm H2O/L/sec
C) 15.0 to 20.0 cm H2O/L/sec
D) 20.0 to 25.0 cm H2O/L/sec
11. In normal individuals, approximately what fraction of the VT is wasted ventilation (does not participate in gas exchange)? (Points : 1)
12. What is the single best indicator of the adequacy or effectiveness of VA? (Points : 1)
13. In a normal individual lying on the right side (right side down), which of the following conditions would be true? (Points : 1)
A) Both lungs would receive nearly equal ventilation.
B) The left lung would receive the most ventilation.
C) The right lung would receive the most ventilation.
D) There is inadequate information to make a decision.
14. What is the normal increase in ventilation that occurs with increased metabolic rates called? (Points : 1)
15. For healthy individuals at rest, which of the following statements about exhalation is true? (Points : 1)
A) Exhalation will be passive, due to inspiratory stored potential energy.
B) Exhalation will only require 40% of the energy expended for inspiration.
C) Exhalation will be the result of accessory respiratory muscle use.
D) Exhalation will generally take half the time of inspiration.
16. Which of the following statements apply to a lung unit with higher resistance than normal? (Points : 1)
A) A given volume change will require less of a pressure change.
B) It will fill and empty more rapidly than a normal lung unit.
C) There will be less volume change for a given pressure change.
D) Volume to this area will remain the same under all conditions.
17. What forces must be overcome to move air into the respiratory system?
I. Tissue movement
II. Elastic forces of lung tissue
III. Airway resistance
IV. Surface tension forces
(Points : 1)
A) I, II, and III
B) II and IV
C) IV only
D) I, II, III, and IV
18. The presence of surfactant in the alveoli tends to do which of the following? (Points : 1)
A) Decrease compliance
B) Decrease surface tension
C) Increase elastance
D) Increase resistance
19. Most of the drop in pressure due to frictional resistance to gas flow occurs in what region? (Points : 1)
A) Nose, mouth, and large airways
B) Respiratory bronchioles
C) Terminal bronchioles
D) Terminal respiratory unit
20. In healthy adults, about what proportion of the total work of breathing is attributable to frictional resistance to gas and tissue movement? (Points : 1)
21. During expiration, why does gas flow out from the lungs to the atmosphere? (Points : 1)
A) Palv is less than at the airway opening.
B) Palv is the same as at the airway opening.
C) Palv is greater than at the airway opening.
D) Airway pressure is greater than Palv.
22. In what portion of the lungs does alveolar dead space normally occur?
(Points : 1)
C) Middle portions of the lungs
D) Terminal respiratory units
23. What is ventilation in excess of metabolic needs called? (Points : 1)
24. A fibrotic lung would exhibit which of the following characteristics? (Points : 1)
A) Decreased airway resistance
B) Decreased lung compliance
C) Decreased PVR
D) Decreased surface tension
25. During normal inspiration, which of the following occurs? (Points : 1)
A) Alveoli at the apexes expand less than those at the bases.
B) Alveoli at the apexes expand more than those at the bases.
C) Alveoli at the bases expand less than those at the apexes.
D) Central alveoli expand more than those at the periphery.
26. For carbon dioxide levels to remain constant during exercise, which of the following factors must be elevated? (Points : 1)
A) Alveolar ventilation
B) Dead space ventilation
D) V/Q ratio
27. In individuals with disorders characterized by an increased frictional work of breathing, such as emphysema, which of the following breathing patterns results in the minimum work? (Points : 1)
A) Rapid and deep breathing
B) Rapid and shallow breathing
C) Slow and deep breathing
D) Slow and shallow breathing
28. A patient has a VT of 625 ml and a physiological dead space of 275 ml and is breathing at a frequency of 16 per minute. What is the alveolar ventilation (VA)? (Points : 1)
A) 3000 ml/min
B) 4400 ml/min
C) 5600 ml/min
D) 7000 ml/min
29. What will happen if the rate of breathing increases without any change in total minute ventilation ( VE constant)? (Points : 1)
A) The dead space ventilation per minute will decrease.
B) The VA per minute will decrease.
C) The VA per minute will increase.
D) The VA per minute will remain constant.
30. At approximately what point during a maximum inspiration does the chest wall reach its natural resting level? (Points : 1)
A) About 30% of the VC
B) About 40% of the total lung capacity (TLC)
C) About 70% of the VC
D) About 90% of the VC
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