20th and 21st Century Classroom...
20th and 21st Century Classroom Management Pioneers
a) Using the Charles text reading above, choose five classroom management pioneers and create a PowerPoint with detailed notes summarizing their respective theories or discipline models. Highlight the specific contribution of each to contemporary classroom management theory.
b) A minimum of 12 slides is required. APA format is not required, but solid writing skill in APA style in the notes and a title slide is expected. Cite in-text and on a References slide.
Pioneers in Classroom Management
Canter, L. (2006). Lee Canter's classroom management for academic success. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. ISBN-13: 978-1932127836
Charles, C. M. (2008). Building classroom discipline (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 978-0205510726
a) Charles, chaps. 4 and 5
Pioneers in Classroom Management
Classroom management has changed dramatically over the past 3 centuries. During the early days of the nation, education was usually conducted in the one-room school house where one teacher taught all subjects to all students, K-12. The curriculum revolved around reading, writing, and arithmetic. The textbooks were the Bible and other classical books. Villages and towns were responsible for the education of their citizenry and if they desired to set up a school, they would; if not, there would not be any formal schooling in that community. The community likewise hired the teacher and mandated educational policy. The only students who went on to higher education were those who were training to be teachers or ministers. Classroom management was such that students did what they were told, and the control factor was the hickory stick. Teachers were authoritarian because they were expected to make students "toe the mark" (Charles, 2008, p. 54). It was the teacher who guided the structure and content of the education process, that teachers were to instruct and students were to adapt to the educational style of the teacher.
20th Century Pioneers
However, with the societal changes instigated by World War II, this attitude began to change. The states took over the education process and each state made laws concerning the education of its residents. Compulsory education meant that all students were required to go to school. These changes brought a wider range of students into the classroom with diverse differences; challenges grew for teachers. Education tends to conform to the demands of society and as it changes, so does education.
The attitude of students following strict guidelines gave way to one which stressed individual interests. Philosopher John Dewey, an early pioneer of education, noted that students learned best when they were given the freedom to explore subjects which were of interest to them; education was to be practical for future employment, and for the ability to contribute to society (Neill, 2005). Rather than strict discipline, the movement stressed individual self-control and peer pressure (Charles, 2008).
Skinner's work with behavior modification influenced classroom management systems in that teachers could understand the value of shaping desirable behavior (Charles, 2008). In the 1960s, his influence could be seen in teachers who rewarded good behavior and ignored misbehavior. Unfortunately, these reward systems, when not coupled with instructing misbehaving students in proper behavior, are simply bribes, which lead to a different set of behavioral issues.
Sometimes students' behavior does not seem to make sense; however, recognizing the goals of misbehavior helps their actions become more understandable. In the 1930s, Druikers, an Austrian psychiatrist and educator who worked with AlXXXXX XXXXX, sought to understand the underlying causes of misbehavior and to develop strategies for students to learn self-discipline (Charles, 2008). He reasoned that students misbehave for four basic reasons (Advantage Press, 2003):
To gain attention.
To yield power.
To seek revenge.
To avoid failure.
Tyson (n.d.) indicates that teachers, and subsequently their students, respond to these misbehaviors in the following ways. When students seek attention through behaviors that distract others, teachers feel annoyed or irritated, verbally lashing out at the student. Students stop their behavior temporarily, but are not taught how to appropriately seek the attention they need. When students display a need for power and control through temper and/or verbal tantrums, teachers feel provoked, frustrated, and fearful. Because the teacher's response leaves the student feeling confrontational, misbehavior usually continues until it is stopped on the student's own terms. When students seek revenge through physical and/or psychological attacks, teachers feel hurt. Their reaction can cause a student to become sullen and withdrawn, and misbehavior can intensify until it is stopped on the student's own terms. When students are trying to avoid failure, they can become frustrated, throw tantrums, and lose control because of the pressure. Teachers, in turn, feel despair and become resigned to the student's failure. Their reaction causes students to procrastinate or fail to complete an assignment, or worse, to consider that they may have a learning disability.
For a teacher, these responses can be overwhelming, but Kagan, Kyle, and Scott, in their Win-Win Discipline method, present a number of tactics for dealing with them and three additional student positions (Charles, 2008). Otherwise, the following are some hints for dealing with misbehavior in a positive manner:
Do the unexpected; rather than acting on first impulse, teachers should take a moment to think and respond in a more useful way.
Distinguish between positive and negative attention seeking. Teachers should give a lot of attention for appropriate behavior and teach a more acceptable means to gain attention.
Avoid direct confrontations where possible.
Provide opportunity for a student to express hurt and hostility in a more appropriate manner.
Encourage a can-do attitude in the student.
A prÃ©cis of 20th century pioneers in classroom management would not be complete without mentioning Lee and Marlene Canter. Their Assertive Discipline system, developed in the late 1970s and popular nearly 20 years, had a profound impact on classrooms across the country. For the first time, both teachers and students had rights in the classroom, and a systematic, "workable procedure for correcting misbehavior efficiently through a system of easily administered corrective actions" (Charles, 2008, p. 69) helped teachers practically.
Into the 21st Century
Classroom management as it is known today developed with educators such as Glasser, Gordon, and Kohn. Glasser's Choice Theory focused on meeting students' needs while improving quality in teaching and learning. The role of communication between teacher and students was emphasized by Gordon in his contention that students could accomplish inner self-control through teacher influence, not out-right control. Kohn's classrooms became learning communities where students could participate fully in all that mattered in the classroom, where they could be cared for and could care about one another (Charles, 2008).
These three spurred the development of systems of discipline, elements of which have become classroom management techniques of teachers across the country. Examples can be found in the Wongs' pragmatic classroom, Kagan, Kyle, and Scott's win-win discipline, Marshall's raise responsibility system, Morrish's real discipline, and countless others more fully described in the Charles and Canter textbooks.
Classroom management seems to have come a long way in a relatively short period of time. Fortunately, as researchers continue to investigate what works and new information comes to light, teachers have the opportunity to develop a personal system of classroom management that can be continually evolving to meet the changing needs of students and the learning environment.
Advantage Press. (2003, June). Reasons for student misbehavior require thoughtful responses. Newsletter, 6.03. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://www.advantagepress.com/newsletters/jun03news.asp
Charles, C. M. (2008). Building classroom discipline (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
Neill, J. (2005). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
Tyson, L. E. (n.d.). How to earn respect from your students and receive outstanding evaluations from your principal by managing conflict appropriately. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from www.ed.uab.edu/ltyson/ClASSMGT1.PPT