here's another exam I need to check my answer before posting them.
1. Rational choice theory is based on the belief that people are
2. The practice of an offender paying back the victim of a crime
3. You've experienced severe headaches and behavior problems
all your life. One day you can't stand it anymore. You take
your gun and shoot two coworkers, then yourself. To what
B. Conflict D. Trait
4. Your cousin was raised by a single mother who struggled to make ends meet. With
two jobs, she didn't have much time to spend with her son. He wasn't a good student,
didn't participate in athletic events, and had poor self-esteem. One day he broke into
a house and stole several dollars worth of goods. It was the first of many crimes. The
theory that would best explain his criminality is
A. social process. C. social structure.
B. trait. D. developmental.
5. Which statement best fits the developmental theory of crime?
A. She was opposed to abortion, so she set fire to the abortion clinic.
B. Her parents were in prison; her only sibling was killed during a robbery attempt;
and she was sentenced to a life sentence for murder.
C. She got pregnant at 14, dropped out of school, succumbed to frequent use of
crack, and fell into prostitution to support herself and her son.
D. She ate a lot of food with sugar in it and got so hyperactive and agitated that she
picked up a knife and stabbed a friend who got on her nerves.
6. Proponents of choice theory feel that crime can be eliminated by
A. forgiving, not punishing.
B. building more prisons.
C. administering several years of psychotherapy.
D. convincing the offender that crime is a poor activity because of negative consequences.
7. General deterrence theory states that punishment should be
A. mental. C. swift.
B. physical. D. lenient.
8. According to specific deterrence theory,
A. crime sanctions should be so powerful that criminals won't repeat their
B. certain categories of criminals should be deterred.
C. members of minority groups should be deterred.
D. certain criminal personality types should be deterred.
9. An example of a biochemical predisposition to crime would be
A. instinct. C. a defect in glucose metabolism.
B. mood-altering drugs. D. environmental influences.
10. A breakdown of rules of behavior during periods of rapid social change, war, or famine
A. conformity. C. ritualism.
B. deprivation. D. anomie
11. The statement "Criminal behavior is learned and learning is a by-product of interaction"
best characterizes the concept of
A. labeling. C. neutralization.
B. differential association. D. deviance.
12. The elements of attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief are factors of
________'s social bond theory.
A. Reckless C. Sellin
B. Miller D. Hirschi
13. A group of criminologists began to study the ecological conditions leading to crime
A. 1980s. C. 1990s.
B. 1880s. D. 1890s.
14. As compared to males, for females, early antisocial behavior most likely leads to
A. problems at work. C. relationship problems.
B. substance abuse. D. physical violence.
15. Research on the life cycle of people with delinquent careers was popularized by
A. Gottfredson and Herschi. C. Jurik.
B. Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. D. Hagan.
16. Your son started stealing in nursery school and was placed in a juvenile detention
facility at age 13 after committing many offenses. This substantiates the early criminal
behavior theory promoted by
A. Sampson and Laub. C. Loeber and Farrington.
B. Glueck and Glueck. D. Weiss, Catalano, and Hawkins.
17. Which newer movement in radical theory regarding criminology draws its inspiration
from religious and philosophical teachings?
A. Peacemaking theory C. Power-control theory
B. Postmodern theory D. Radical feminist theory
18. Restoration involves turning the justice system into a _______ process.
A. punishing C. humiliating
B. isolating D. healing
19. Possibly the greatest challenge to restorative justice is the difficult task of balancing
the needs of offenders with the needs of
A. society. C. their victims.
B. their families. D. the criminal justice system.
20. Law-violating behavior occurs when a person decides to break the law after considering
the possible consequences. This statement defines which categorical theory of crime?
A. Trait C. Social structure
B. Social process D. Choice