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What statement about Spanish America is true? Over

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What statement about Spanish America is true? Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture. Mestizos enjoyed much political freedom and held most of the high government positions. Spaniards outnumbered the Indian inhabitants within fifty years of settlement. The Catholic Church played only a minor role in Spanish America. Spanish America was very rural and had few urban centers. What role did religion play in the Columbus’s explorations? None whatsoever. Columbus was determined to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Catholics in Spain and Italy supported his expeditions because they wanted to end Muslim control of the eastern trade. Columbus benefited from Ferdinand and Isabella’s efforts to promote tolerance in Spain. Although Columbus did not know it, Spain wanted him to find a refuge for the Jews the king was driving out of the country. In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch sought to imitate the Spanish. concentrated more on economics than religious conversion. tried to drive Native Americans into the Puritan colony. avoided warfare at all costs. called them members of a deceitful race. Pueblo Indians lived in the eastern United States. the southwestern United States. Mexico. the northeastern United States. Central America. Native American religious ceremonies had nothing to do with farming or hunting. were related to the Native American belief that sacred spirits could be found in living and inanimate things. were designed to show that supernatural forces must control man. were the same in every community. did not exist until arriving Europeans insisted on knowing about Native American customs. Henry Hudson set sail into the bay that bears his name as a representative of the British empire. was searching for the Pacific Coast. hoped to find a Northwest Passage to Asia. set up a Dutch colony based on the idea of consent of the governed. was the architect of the Dutch overseas empire. In Great Britain, social inequality was part of a hierarchical society. did not keep British subjects from enjoying the same degree of individual freedom. did not mean that there was economic inequality. was banned under the doctrine of coverture. prompted Henry VIII’s break with the Catholic Church. The Pueblo Indians encountered by the Spanish in the sixteenth century had engaged in settled village life only briefly before the Spanish arrived. had been almost completely isolated from any other people before the Spanish arrived. used irrigation systems to aid their agricultural production. were called Mound Builders for the burial mounds they created. created a vast empire that included control of the Incas. Which of the following is true of Spanish emigrants to the New World? Many of the early arrivals came to direct Native American labor. From the beginning, they came as families. They were all at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They soon outnumbered Native Americans. Only the residents of the Malaga province migrated. The Spanish empire included most of the populated part of the New World but few of its natural resources, making the empire rich in people but poor economically. paled in comparison with the ancient Roman Empire. was, unlike the French and English New World empires, a mostly urban civilization. was centered in Lima, Peru. All of the above The Native American population was at least 100 million at the time that Columbus arrived. was largely dependent upon agriculture at the time of European exploration. declined catastrophically due to exposure to the Black Plague. lived mostly in North America. lived mostly in Central and South America. Under British law, women enjoyed far greater rights than they did in Spain and Spanish America. were entitled to one-half of their husbands’ property if they outlived them. lacked the power to vote or even to control their bodies. were expected to submit to their husbands in public, but not in private. gained a great deal of personal and political power when queens began to reign. Patroonship in New Netherland was a great success, bringing thousands of new settlers to the colony. meant that shareholders received large estates for transporting tenants for agricultural labor. was like a system of medieval lords. led to one democratic manor led by Kiliaen van Rensselaer. prompted terrible treatment of Native Americans. The Indian population in Spanish America declined due to enslavement. war. disease. All of the above None of the above What does the seal of New Netherland, adopted by the Dutch West India Company in 1630, suggest is the central item of trade to the colony’s prospects? Tobacco Fish Silver Timber Fur The government of the Spanish empire in America established the principle of the separation of church and state by keeping the Catholic Church out of civic affairs was dominated by the conquistadores, who had conquered lands and retained control over them. included local officials who held a great deal of control. was troubled due to constant turmoil and local divisions back in Spain. operated out of Monterey, California. The Pueblo Indian uprising of 1680 followed their leader Popé’s arrest for engaging in sexual relations with a non–Native American woman. helped lead to the most complete victory for Native Americans over Europeans. was based entirely on economic factors. was the work of one Native American tribe. began a long tradition of cooperation between New Mexico’s tribes. Spain set up outposts from Florida to South Carolina because it hoped to convert local Native Americans to Christianity. English colonists from Virginia were preying on Spanish missionaries, who needed protection. after finding the Fountain of Youth, it wanted to protect this valuable resource. the discovery of gold mines meant that other powers were likely to encroach on Spanish territories. None of the above The first French explorations of the New World brought great riches to France. were intended to locate a Northwest Passage. led to successful colonies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. were in response to an intense rivalry with the Netherlands. created no permanent settlements until the eighteenth century. “Coverture” means a woman’s head is covered by a scarf when in public. knowing your place in society, especially at church when sitting in the pews. a tax one pays on one’s property that is assessed quarterly. a woman surrenders her legal identity when she marries. a binding legal agreement between an indentured servant and his or her master. How did French involvement in the fur trade change life for Native Americans? It didn’t; Native Americans had been involved in hunting beaver and buffalo already. Native Americans benefited economically but were able to avoid getting caught up in European conflicts and rivalries. The French were willing to accept Native Americans into colonial society. The English and French quests for beaver pelts virtually destroyed the Native American population. It forced Native Americans to learn new trapping techniques that were far superior to their old ways. Which of the following motivated Spanish exploration of the New World? The quest for slaves and wealth The belief that the Fountain of Youth existed in the area that later became known as Florida Rumors that seven cities of gold existed somewhere in the vicinity All of the above a and b In 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Montreal. New York. Champlain. Quebec. Albany. According to Europeans, what was the Native American attitude toward freedom? Their understanding of despotism and dictatorships meant that they knew what true freedom meant. They were too free for their own good because they lacked proper rules to live by. Their lack of private property gave them a greater understanding of individual rights. The importance of individual decision-making among Native Americans meant that they understood that the individual mattered more than the community. b and c When Europeans arrived, many Native Americans tried to use them to enhance their standing with other Native Americans. immediately opened treaty negotiations. learned their languages. hid in nearby cave dwellings. simply attacked them. Unlike the first European explorers who encountered Native Americans, those who arrived later believed that Native Americans were gentle and friendly. their similar superstitions made Native American religion acceptable. Native Americans failed to make use of the land, so it was acceptable for Europeans to take it and use it. because the Native American men engaged in hunting and fishing, their gender divisions were acceptable. All of the above Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans had elaborate trade networks. were entirely agricultural and rural. from all regions of the continent were very similar in their political and religious beliefs. always lived in small family units. lived only in coastal areas. Of the approximately 10 million men, women, and children who came from the old World to the New World between 1492 and 1820, how many were African slaves? 2.4 million 5.3 million 7.7 million 9.1 million None of the above European views of the Indians included all of the following except Indians lacked genuine religion. Indians had enormous potential to assimilate into European ways. Indian males were weak and mistreated women. Indians did not use the land and thus had no claim to it. Indians were not much better than slaves. Which of the following statements about African slavery within Africa is false? African slaves tended to be criminals, debtors, or captives in war. Slavery was one of several forms of labor in Africa. Slaves had well-defined rights and could possess property. The slave trade within Africa accelerated between 1450 and 1500. Only men were taken for the slave trade.
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