Here are your answers, I hope they help!
1) DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-stranded helix that contains the genetic code for all animals and plants. DNA is made of DNA includes the information for genes which are eventually translated into protein, and sequences before and after genes that allow genes to be transcribed. DNA also contains "junk" information that is not yet understood by scientists. DNA is made up of an alternating deoxyribose sugar and phosphate backbone. Between the two backbones are four types of bases: guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine, which basically join the backbones by hydrogen bonds. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is single-stranded and is transcribed (or copied) from a strand of DNA. RNA includes the sequence of genes that are to be translated into proteins and is referred to as messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA does not form a helix, but it can form other secondary structures, such as hairpins. RNA's backbone consists of ribose sugars alternating with phosphate and has bases similar to DNA, but thymine is replaced with uricil.
3) Assuming the DNA strand is the transcribed strand, the mRNA would be:
UAA CGC AGU UAA UGC GAU and the amino acid sequence would be Stop, Arg, Ser, Stop, Cys, Asp
4) mRNA-messenger RNA is transcribed from DNA and tells the ribosome which amino acids to use when building a protein (called translation). Every three bases corresponds to an amino acid.
tRNA-transfer RNA is a smaller chain of nucleotides that transfers the correct amino acid to the polypeptide chain that is being made by a ribosome during translation.
rRNA-ribosomal RNA is the catalytic component of the ribosome and is made in the nucleus (as opposed to the cytosol).
5) Mitosis is the process of a diploid cell duplicating itself, resulting in two cells with identical genetic information and the proper organelles. Meiosis is part of sexual reproduction and the process of a diploid cell duplicating itself and dividing into a total of four haploid cells. Mitosis occurs in all cells, except for germ cells and meiosis occurs only in germ cells (to produce sperm or eggs). Below is a table that shows the differences in the phases:
Prophase-chromatin condenses Prophase I-same, but recombination occurs
and forms chromosomes
Metaphase-chromosomes align Metaphase I-same
in center of cell
Anaphase-sister chromotids are Anaphase I-same but whole chromosomes are pulled to
Pulled apart to the centrioles one side, so each side has half of the total of chrom.
Telophase-nuclear envelope forms Telophase I -same
and chromosomes decondense ProphaseII-TelophaseII-similar to Mitosis, but DNA is
6) G1-part of interphase, where cells increase in size and cellular functions (such as protein synthesis) occur at a high rate
S phase-part of interphase, where DNA replication occurs to prepare for mitosis
G2-part of interphase, where the cells continue to grow and make sure that everything is prepared and in proper order before mitosis begins
M phase-part of cell division, where cell growth stops and the cell enters mitosis
7) Sporophyte-a diploid non-sexual reproductive phase in a plant's life cycle where it can produce spores
Gametophyte-the haploid phase of a plant's life cycle, w here the plant produces gametes for sexual reproduction
Allele-one copy of a gene. Humans have two copies of every gene, or two alleles, one from each parent
Zygote-the diploid fertilized cell produced from the joining of a haploid sperm with a haploid egg
Egg-the female animal's gamete or sex cell, which is haploid
8) The husband's genotype is either Bb or BB and the mother's genotype is bb. Therefore, the offspring's phenotypes could include brown or blue eyes, depending on the father's genotype. If the father is heterozygous, then most of the offspring would have brown eyes, but it is possible for some of them to have blue eyes. If the father is homozygous, then all of the children will have brown eyes.