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Andrea, Graduate Student
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Experience:  Doctoral Candidate and Adjunct Prof. of Biology
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1) Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. How many strands does

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1)     Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. How many strands does each have? What are their bases? What are their sugars? What are their functions?
2)   If this is one strand of DNA: ATTGCGTCAATTACGCTA, what would its complementary strand be?
3)   If this is a strand of DNA: ATTGCGTCAATTACGCTA, what would the mRNA strand look like after transcription? What would the amino acid sequence be of the mRNA?
4) What are the functions of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA?
5) Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. What is the purpose of each? In what types of cells are each occurring? What are the differences in the divisions of each? What is the final outcome of each (number of cells and genetic make-up)?
6) Name the 4 phases of the cell cycle and describe what is happening in each.
7) Define the following: sporophyte, gametophyte, allele, zygote, egg
8) In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue (b). A brown-eyed man marries a blue-eyed woman and they have children. What are the phenotypes



Here are your answers, I hope they help!






1) DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-stranded helix that contains the genetic code for all animals and plants. DNA is made of DNA includes the information for genes which are eventually translated into protein, and sequences before and after genes that allow genes to be transcribed. DNA also contains "junk" information that is not yet understood by scientists. DNA is made up of an alternating deoxyribose sugar and phosphate backbone. Between the two backbones are four types of bases: guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine, which basically join the backbones by hydrogen bonds. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is single-stranded and is transcribed (or copied) from a strand of DNA. RNA includes the sequence of genes that are to be translated into proteins and is referred to as messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA does not form a helix, but it can form other secondary structures, such as hairpins. RNA's backbone consists of ribose sugars alternating with phosphate and has bases similar to DNA, but thymine is replaced with uricil.




3) Assuming the DNA strand is the transcribed strand, the mRNA would be:

UAA CGC AGU UAA UGC GAU and the amino acid sequence would be Stop, Arg, Ser, Stop, Cys, Asp


4) mRNA-messenger RNA is transcribed from DNA and tells the ribosome which amino acids to use when building a protein (called translation). Every three bases corresponds to an amino acid.

tRNA-transfer RNA is a smaller chain of nucleotides that transfers the correct amino acid to the polypeptide chain that is being made by a ribosome during translation.

rRNA-ribosomal RNA is the catalytic component of the ribosome and is made in the nucleus (as opposed to the cytosol).


5) Mitosis is the process of a diploid cell duplicating itself, resulting in two cells with identical genetic information and the proper organelles. Meiosis is part of sexual reproduction and the process of a diploid cell duplicating itself and dividing into a total of four haploid cells. Mitosis occurs in all cells, except for germ cells and meiosis occurs only in germ cells (to produce sperm or eggs). Below is a table that shows the differences in the phases:

Mitosis Meiosis

Prophase-chromatin condenses Prophase I-same, but recombination occurs

and forms chromosomes

Metaphase-chromosomes align Metaphase I-same

in center of cell

Anaphase-sister chromotids are Anaphase I-same but whole chromosomes are pulled to

Pulled apart to the centrioles one side, so each side has half of the total of chrom.

Telophase-nuclear envelope forms Telophase I -same

and chromosomes decondense ProphaseII-TelophaseII-similar to Mitosis, but DNA is

not duplicated


6) G1-part of interphase, where cells increase in size and cellular functions (such as protein synthesis) occur at a high rate

S phase-part of interphase, where DNA replication occurs to prepare for mitosis

G2-part of interphase, where the cells continue to grow and make sure that everything is prepared and in proper order before mitosis begins

M phase-part of cell division, where cell growth stops and the cell enters mitosis


7) Sporophyte-a diploid non-sexual reproductive phase in a plant's life cycle where it can produce spores

Gametophyte-the haploid phase of a plant's life cycle, w here the plant produces gametes for sexual reproduction

Allele-one copy of a gene. Humans have two copies of every gene, or two alleles, one from each parent

Zygote-the diploid fertilized cell produced from the joining of a haploid sperm with a haploid egg

Egg-the female animal's gamete or sex cell, which is haploid


8) The husband's genotype is either Bb or BB and the mother's genotype is bb. Therefore, the offspring's phenotypes could include brown or blue eyes, depending on the father's genotype. If the father is heterozygous, then most of the offspring would have brown eyes, but it is possible for some of them to have blue eyes. If the father is homozygous, then all of the children will have brown eyes.

Customer: replied 8 years ago.
There was a question missing. number 9.), but number (1) I didnt really like the way you answer that question and its not the same answer as my own written, bur once this question is answered i will pay asap meaning today

9) In some cats the gene for tail length shows incomplete dominance. Cats with long tails are homozygous dominant and cats with no tails are homozygous recessive. Heterozygous cats have short tails. For each of the following construct a punnett square and give phenotypic and genotype ratios of the offspring.
a) a long tail cat and a cat with no tail
b) a long tail cat and a short tail cat
c) a short tail cat and a cat with no tail
d) two short tail cats.

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Customer: replied 8 years ago.
Thank you I accept the work. Great job
Customer: replied 8 years ago.
i might need ur help this week ,


Thanks! I'm glad you liked it!


I would be glad to help you. I probably won't check in too much over this weekend (Sat-Monday) because it is a holiday weekend. If this is a problem, feel free to allow other experts to answer your questions. I will definately be checking for questions Tuesday, and I will try to periodically check in over the weekend.


Thanks again!